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Đề tài: Nhờ m.n dịch dùm mik vs ạ, có nhiều từ ngữ chuyên ngành mik dịch ra khó hiểu quá

  1. #1
    Tham gia ngày
    Oct 2017
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    Exclamation Nhờ m.n dịch dùm mik vs ạ, có nhiều từ ngữ chuyên ngành mik dịch ra khó hiểu quá

    1. Value transferability tests
    Both the single unit value transfer approach and the value function transfer approach were tested in this study. The unit value transfer was used to directly transfer the estimated consumer surplus from available studies to the policy site (i.e. the Gold Coast beaches). The efficiency of the unit value transfer approach was tested in terms of the absolute per cent error (Rosenberger and Loomis, 2003), which is the percentage difference between the value transferred from available studies to policy site and the value observed for the policy site through an original study. The income-adjusted unit value transfer approach was found to perform better with reduced value transfer errors than direct unit value transfer because it took into account the income differences between various sites (Barton, 2002). In our case, three of the four available studies were conducted in Queensland (Blackwell, 2007; Rolfe and Gregg, 2012; Blackwell et al., 2013), therefore no income adjustment is needed. As to the study done in Sydney (NSW), the equality of individual weekly income in NSW and Queensland during 2008–2011 has been tested through the t-test and the Mann–Whitney test. Results show no significant differences. Therefore, no income adjustment was performed for the unit value transfer approach in this study.

    The absolute per cent error from the unit value transfer approach using each available study was calculated and is shown in the last column of Table 9.
    As to the benefit function transfer, the whole function that resulted from each available study was transferred and the coefficients from the function were used to calculate the value for the policy site (Downing and Ozuna,1996). However, using the individual travel cost method, the consumer surplus was decided by the coefficient of the travel cost variable. This means that transferring the benefit function from the available studies to the policy site is not going to influence the estimation of the consumer surplus.

    Since the information about the number of beach visits is important to understand the beach usage and the total value of beach recreation, the transferability of predicted beach visits from available studies was tested using the benefit function method. The benefit functions estimated from available studies listed in Table 9 were combined with the data we collected from onsite surveys to obtain the predicted Gold Coast beach visits. Comparing the predicted beach visits with the beach visit data we collected, the transferability of benefit function from each available study was tested. Among the different type of travel cost variables, the minimum travel cost is the only commonly used variable for the available studies in Table 9. Therefore the benefit function including the minimum travel cost from each study was transferred and tested. For those independent variables that were included in the available study but not collected from our onsite questionnaire, the reported mean value from available study was used. The descriptive statistics for independent variables were not reported in Blackwell et al. (2013), therefore the benefit function transfer cannot be conducted.

    To test the transferability of benefit functions, the Mann– Whitney test and Kolmogorov–Smirnov test were used. The Mann–Whitney test is used to check whether the mean of the predicted beach visits are equal to the mean of observed beach visits (Brouwer and Spaninks, 1999). The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (Bergland et al., 1995) is used to compare whether the distribution of predicted beach visits equals the distribution of the observed data.

    As shown in Table 10, the null hypothesis of the equal distribution of predicted and observed beach visits was rejected in all transfer cases; The null hypothesis of equal means of predicted and observed beach visits was rejected in most of the transfer cases except the cases of the full sample value function transfer from the Blackwell (2007) study and the Anning (2012) study for Manly beach. Therefore, the transfer mean beach visits from Blackwell (2007) and Anning (2012) are more likely to provide a close estimate for Gold Coast beaches. However, the distribution of the beach visits was significantly different and therefore cannot be transferred.

    Sửa lần cuối bởi yesno : 18-10-2017 lúc 12:37 PM

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