Khái niệm: Mệnh đề trạng ngữ là mệnh đề phụ làm chức năng của một trạng từ bổ nghĩa cho động từ, tính từ hay trạng từ trong câu thông qua các liên từ phụ thuộc.
MĐ trạng ngữ được giới thiệu bởi các liên từ phụ thuộc như: because, until, so that, although, if, as though,…
Khi mệnh đề trạng ngữ mở đầu câu, Dấu phẩy được dùng để ngăn cách 2 mệnh đề chính phụ.
Ex: After I had received the information, I went immediately.
Th́ của động từ: tuân theo nguyên tắc th́ thời của động từ.
Phân loại: dựa vào ngữ nghĩa của liên từ phụ thuộc, mệnh đề trạng ngữ có 9 loại cơ bản sau đây:
a.Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian (Adverbial clause of time)
- Once (một khi): Once you understand this principle, you will find no difficulty.
- When: When it rains, I usually go to school by bus.
- While: I learned a lot of Japanese while I was in Tokyo.
- By the time (vào lúc): By the time I finished, I was very tired.
- Before: She learned English before she came to England .
- After: He came after night had fallen.
- Since (từ khi): I have not been well since I returned home.
- As (khi): I saw her as she was leaving home.
- Till/until (cho tới khi): I’ll stay here till/until you get back.
- As soon as (ngay sau khi): As soon as John heard the news, he wrote to me.
- Just as (vừa khi): Just as he entered the room, I heard a terrible explosion .
- Whenever: I’ll discuss it with you whenever you like.
- As long as (chừng nào mà): As long as it doesn’t rain, we can play.
- No sooner …than ( vừa mới …th́): No sooner will he arrive than he will want to leaved.
b. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn (Adverbial clause of place)
- Where: I will go where you tell me.
- Wherever: Sit wherever you like. c. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ cách thức (Adverbial clause of manner)
- As (như): The fought as heroes do.
- As if/ as though (cứ như thể là, như thể):
He looked at me as if I were mad.
You look as if you had seen a ghost. d. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ mục đích (Adverbial clause of purpose)
- So that (để): She dresses like that so that everyone will notice her.
- In order that (để mà): Some people eat so that they may live. Others seem to live in order that they may eat.
- In case: We had better take an umbrella in case it should rain.
- So (để): I gave you a map so you wouldn’t get lost.
e.Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ nguyên nhân (Adverbial clause of reason)
- Because(of = owing to = due to + N/ NP): He sold the car because it was too small.
- As: As he was tired, he sat down.
- Since: Since we have no money, we can’t buy it.
- Seeing that: Seeing that you won’t help me, I must do the job myself.
- For: They don’t go to the movies, for it rains cats and dogs.
- Due to/ because of the fact that: He was late yesterday due to the fact that the traffic was heavy.
* Since/ as -> v́ lư do chung chung. C̣n Because/ for -> v́ lư do cá nhân. f. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ kết quả (Adverbial clause of result)
- So + tính từ/trạng từ + that (thế nào đó đến nỗi mà): The coffee is so hot that I can not drink it.
- Such (a/ an) + danh từ + that: It was such a hot day that I took off my Jacket.
- So (v́ vậy, cho nên): The shops were closed, so I didn’t get any milk.
- Therefore, consequently, as a result, as a consequence, with the result that + S + V: I was late, with the result that I missed my train. g. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ (Adverbial clause of concession)
- Though/ although ( mặc dù): Though he looks ill, he is really very strong.
- No matter: có ư nghiă tương tự như: (al)though, được theo sau bởi how, what, where, who.
No matter how (dù thế nào đi nữa) = however: No matter how you say, I still love him.
No matter who (dù bất cứ ai) = whoever: whoever you are, I still believe in you.
No matter where (dù ở bất cứ đâu) = wherever: wherever you live, be confident.
No matter what (dù có điều ǵ đi chăng nữa)= whatever: whatever it happens, smile and pass it.
- Whereas = while(ngược lại, trong khi): Some peple like meat with much fat in it whereas others hate it.
* Despite = in spite of + N/ NP = mặc dù: They had a wonderful holiday despite the bad weather. h. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự so sánh(Adverbial clause of comparison): so/ as…as, adj + er than, more + adj + than, the most….
This exercise is not so easy as you think. i. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ điều kiện (Adverbial clause of condition) - If: If it rains, we shall stay at home.
- Unless: I will fail in French unless I work harder.
- As/ so long as (miễn là, nếu): As long as you agree, I will accept.