ai cha cha, loay hoay thế nào lại wên add cái title của bài Issac Newton mất roài >.< Định Edit lại nhưng lại thôi. Cô giáo cứ việc trừ điểm thẳng tay đi ạh! ^.^

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Isaac Newton, one of history’s greatest scientistsThis is Shirley Griffith
And this is Steve Ember with the VOA special English program, explorations. Today we tell about one of the world’s greatest scientists, Isaac Newton.
Much of today’s science of physics is based on Newton’s discovery of the three laws of motion and his theory of gravity. Newton also developed one of the most powerful tools of mathematics. It is the method we call calculus. Late in his life, Newton said of his work “If I saw further than other men, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants”.
One of those giants was the great Italian scientist, Galileo. Galileo died the same year Newton was born. Another of the giants was the Polish scientist Nicholas Copernicus. He lived a hundred years before Newton. Copernicus had begun a scientific revolution. It led to a completely new understanding of how the universe worked. Galileo continued and expanded the work of Copernicus. Isaac Newton built on the ideas of these two scientists and others. He found and proved the answers for which they searched.
Isaac Newton was born in Woolthord, England, in December 25th 1642. He was born early. He was a small baby and very weak. No one expected him to survive. But he surprised everyone. He had one of the most powerful minds in history. And he lived until he was eightyfour. Newton’s father died before he was born. His mother married again a few years later. She left Isaac with his grandmother.
The boy was not a good student, yet he liked to make things, such as kites and clocks and simple machines.
Newton also enjoyed finding new ways to answer questions or solve problems. As a boy, for example, he decided to find a way to measure the speed of the wind. On a windy day, he measured how far he could jump with the wind at his back. Then he measured how far he could jump with the wind in his face. From the difference between the two jumps, he made his own measure of the strength of the wind.
Strangely, Newton became a much better student after a boy kicked him in the stomach. The boy was one of the best students in the school. Newton decided to get even by getting higher marks than the boy who kicked him. In a short time, Newton became the top student at the school.
Newton left school to help on the family farm. It soon became clear, however, that the boy was not a good farmer. He spent his time solving mathematical problems, instead of taking care of the crops. He spent hours visiting a book store in town, instead of selling his vegetables in the market. An uncle decided that Newton would do better as a student than a farmer. So he helped the young man enter Cambridge University to study mathematics. Newton completed his university studies five years later, in 1665. He was 22 years old.
At that time, a deadly plague was spreading across England. To escape the disease, Newton returned to the family farm. He did more thinking than farming. In doing so, he found the answers to some of the greatest mysteries of science.
Newton used his great skill in mathematics to form a better understanding of the world and the universe. He used the method he had learned as a boy in making things. He experimented. Then he studied the results and used what he had learned to design new experiments.
Newton’s work led him to create a new method in mathematics for measuring areas curved in shape. He also used it to find how much material was contained in solid objects. The method he created became known as integral calculus.
One day, sitting in the garden, Newton watched an apple fall from a tree. He began to wonder if the same force that pulled the apple down also kept the moon circling the earth. Newton believed it was. And he believed it could be measured. He called the force “gravity”. He began to examine it carefully. He decided that the strength of the force keeping a planet in orbit around the sun depended on two things. One was the amount of mass in the planet and the sun. The other was how far apart they were.
Newton was able to find the exact relationship between distance and gravity. He multiplied the mass of one space objected by the mass of the other. Then he divided that number by the square of their distance apart. The result was the strength of the gravity force that tied them to each other.
Newton proved his idea by measuring how much gravity force would be needed to keep the moon orbiting the earth. Then he measured the mass of the earth and the moon, and the distance between them. He found that his measurement of the gravity force produced was not the same as the force needed. But the numbers were close.
Newton did not tell anyone about his discovery. He put it aside to work on other ideas. Later, with correct measurement of the size of the earth, he found that the numbers were exactly the same.
Newton spent time studying light and colours. He used a threesized piece of glass called a prism.
He sent a beam of sunlight through a prism. It fell on a white surface. The prism separated the beam of sunlight into the colours of a rainbow. Newton believed that all these colours – mixed together in light – produced the colour white. He proved this by letting the beam of rainbow – coloured light pass through another prism. This changed the colored light back to white light.
Newton’s study of light led him to learn why faraway objects seen through a telescope do not seem sharp and clear. The curved glass lenses at each end of the telescope acted like prisms. They produced a circle of colored light around an object. This created an unclear picture. A few years later, Newton built a different kind of telescope. It used a curved mirror to make faraway objects seem larger. Light reflected from the surface of the mirror, instead of passing through a curved glass lens. Newton’s reflecting telescope produced much clearer pictures than the old kind of telescope.
Years later, the British astronomer Edmund Halley visited Newton. He said he wanted Newton’s help in finding an answer to a problem no one had been able to solve. The question was this: “What is the path of a planet going around the sun?” Newton immediately gave Halley the answer: an eggshaped path called an ellipse.
Halley was surprised. He asked for Newton’s proof. Newton no longer had the papers from his earlier work. He was able to recreate them, however. He showed them to Halley. He also showed Halley all his other scientific works.
Halley said Newton’s scientific discoveries were the greatest ever made. He urged Newton to share them with the world. Newton began to write a book that explained what he had done. It was published in 1687. Newton called his book “The mathematical principles of natural philosophy”. The book is considered the greatest scientific work ever written.
In his book, Newton explains the three natural laws of motion. The first law is that an object not moving remains still. And one that is moving continues to move at unchanging speed, so long as no outside force influences it.
Objects in spaces continue to move, because nothing exists in spaces to stop them. Newton’s second law of motion describes force. It says force equals the mass of an object, multiplied by the change in speed it produces in an object. His third law says that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
From these three laws, Newton was able to show how the universe worked. He proved it with easily understood mathematics. Scientists everywhere accepted Newton’s ideas. The leading English poet of Newton’s time, Alexander Pope honored the scientist with these words: “nature and nature’s laws lay heed in night. God said “Let Newton be” – and all was light”.
And this is Steve Ember. Listen again next week for another explorations program on the voice of America.
Isaac Newton, one of history greatest scienticts
This is Shirley Griffith
and this is Steve Ember with the VOA special English program,
exploration. Today we tell about one of the world greatest scienticts
Isaac Newton
Much of today’s sciens of physics is base on Newton discovery of the three law
of motion and his theory of gravaty. Newton also develops one of the
most power tools of mathmatics. It is the method we call calculus. Late
in his live, Newton said of his work: “If I saw futher then other men. it was
because I stood on the shoulder of giants
one of though giants was the great Italian scientic, Galileo. Galileo
died the same year Newton was born. Another of the giants was the Polish
scientic Nicholas Copernicus. He lived a hundred years before Newton.
Copernicus had began a scientific revolution. It left to a completly New
understanding of Haft the Univest wokt. Galileo continued and
expanded the work of Copernicus. Isaac Newton built on the idea of these
to scientics and other. He found and proved the answer for which they search
Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, England, on December 25th
1642 . He was born early. He was a small baby and very week. No
one expected him to service. But he surprised everyone. He had one of the
most power main in history. And he lived entry he was 84. Newton’s
father died before he was born. His mother married again a few year later. She
left Isaac with his grandmother.
The boy was not a good student.Yet he liked to make thing,such as kind and
clocks and simple machines.
Newton also enjoyed finding new ways to answer question or solve
problem. As a boy, for example, he decided to find a way to measure the
speed of the wind. On a windy day, he measured how far he could jump with the
wind at his back. Then he measured how far he could jump with wind in his face
from the different between the two jump,he made his once measure of the strength
of the wind.
straingly, Newton became a much better student after a boy kick him in the
stomach.The boy was one of the best students in the school.Newton decided to
get even by getting higher marks then the boy who kick him. In a short time,
Newton became the top student at the school.
Newton left school to help on the family farm. It soon became clear, however, that
the boy was not a good farmer. He spent his time solving mathematical
problems, instead of taking care of the crops. He spent over visiting a book
store in town,instead of selling his vegetables in the maket.An uncle decided
that Newton would do beter as a student then a farmer.So he help the young man
enter Cambright university to study mathematics. Newton completed his
university study five years later, in sixteen sixtyfive. He was twentytwo
years old.
At that time, a deadly plague was spreading across England. To escape the
diseases, Newton returned to the family farm.He did more thinking than farming.In
doing so, he found the answer to some of the greatest mistery of sciens.
Newton used his great skill in mathematics to form a better understanding of
the world and the univers.He used methods he had learned as a boy in making
things.He experimented.Then he studied the result and used what he had learned to design new experiments.
Newton work led him to create a new method in mathematics for measuring
area curved in shape. He also used it to find how much material was
contained in solid objects. The method he created became known as
integral calculus.
one day,siting in the garden,Newton watch an apple fall from a tree.He began to
wonder if the same force that pull the apple down also kept the moon circling the
earth.Newton believed it was.And he believed it could be measure.He cald the force
“gravity”.He began to examing it carefuly.He decided that the strength of the
force keeping a planet in orbit around the sun depended on 2 things. One was
the amount of mass in the planet and the sun.The other was how far apart they wə(r).
Newton was able to find the exact relationship between distance and gravity.
He multiplied the mass of one space object by the mass of the other.Then he
deviced that number by the square of their distance apart. The result was the
Strength of the gravity force that tide them to each other.
Newton proved his idea by measuring how much gravity force would be needed to
keep the moon orbiting the earth.Then he measured the mass of the earth and the moon
and the distance between them.He found that his measurement of the gravity force
produced was not the same as the force needed. But the number were close.
Newton did not tell anyone about his discovery.He put it aside to work on
other idea. Later, with corect measurement of the size of the earth,he found that
the number was exactly the same.
Newton spent time studing light and color.He used a threesided peace of glass
called a prism.
He sent a beam of sunlight through the prism. It fell on a white surface. The prism
separated the beam of sunlight into the color of a rainbow. Newton believed that
all these color—mixed together in light—produced the color white.He proved
this by letting the beam of rainbowcolored light pass through another prism. This
changed the colored light back to white light.
Newton study of light led him to learn why faraway objects seen through a
telescope do not seem sharp and clear.The curved glass lenses at each end of the
telescope acted light prisms. They produced a circle of colored light around
an object. This created an unclear picture. A few years later, Newton built a
different kind of telescope. It used a curved mirror to make faraway
objects seem large. Late reflected from the surface of the mirror, instead of
passing through a curved glass lens. Newton reflecting telescope produced much
clear pictures than the old kind of telescope.
Years later, the British astronomer Edmund Halley visited Newton. He said he
wanted Newton help in finding an answer to a problem no one had been
able to solve. The question was this: What is the path of a planet going
around the sun? Newton immediately give Halley the answer: an exshaped path called
an ellipse.
Halley was surprised. He asked for Newton proved. Newton no longer had the
papers from his earlier work. He was able to recreate them, however. He showed
them to Halley. He also showed Halley all his other scientific work.
Halley said Newton scientific discovery were the greatest ever made.He urged
Newton to share them with the world.Newton began to write a book that explained
what he had done. It was publish in 1687. Newton called his book
“The mathematical principles of natural Philosophy.” The book is consided the greatest sientific work ever writen.
In his book, Newton explained the 3 natural laws of motion. The first law is
that an object not moving remains still. And one that is moving continues
to move at an unchanging speed, so long as no outside force influenced it.
Object in space continue to move, because nothing exists in space to stop
them.Newton’s second law of motion describes force.It says force equal the
mass of an oblect, multiplied by the change in speed it produces in an
object. His third law says that force every action, there is an equal and opposite
reaction.
from these 3 laws,Newton was able to show how the univers works. He proved it
with easily understood mathematics. Scientist everywhere accepted Newton
ideas. The leading English poet of Newton’s time, Alexander Pope, honored the
Scientist with these words:”nature and natures laws lei hid in night. God said:
Let Newton be and all was light.”
This special English program was writen by Marilyn Christiano and Frank
Beardsley. This is Sherly Grifit.
and this is Steve Ember. Listen again next week for another exploration
program on the voice of America.
Sửa lần cuối bởi VietKhanh : 27022007 lúc 09:19 AM
Thi thử TOEIC MIỄN PHÍ Thi thử TOEIC tại TOEIC Academy Thi thử như thi thật, đề thi sát đề thật 
Ôn thi TOEIC miễn phí
Ôn thi TOEIC trực tuyến miễn phí với TOEIC Academy 
Cô ơi câu này nghĩa là gì ạ?
Em nghĩ "hid" là quá khứ của "hide", nhưng nếu thế thì câu này????Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night.
Chữ bôi đỏ là em so với đáp án cô ạ
Isaac Newton, one of history’s greatest scientists.
This is Shirley Griffith.
And this is Steve Ember with the VOA special English program, Explorations. Today, we tell about one of the world’s greatest scientists, Isaac Newton.
Much of today’s science of physics is based on Newton’s discovery of the three laws of motion and his theory of gravity. Newton also developed one of the most powerful tools of mathematics. It is the method we call calculus. Late in his life, Newton said of his work: “If I saw further than other men, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants”.
One of those giants was the great Italian scientist, Galileo. Galileo died the same year Newton was born. Another of the giants was the Polish scientist, Nicolas Copernicus. He lived a hundred years before Newton. Copernicus had begun a scientific revolution. It led to a completely new understanding of how the universe worked. Galileo continued and expanded the work of Copernicus. Isaac Newton built on the ideas of these two scientist and others. He found and proved the answers for which they searched.
Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, England on December 25, 1642. He was born early. He was a small baby and very week. No one expected him to survive. But he surprised everyone. He had one of the most powerful minds in history. And he lived until he was eightyfour. Newton’s father died before he was born. His mother married again a few years later. She left Isaac with his grandmother.
The boy was not a good student. Yet he liked to make things, such as kites and clocks and simple machines.
Newton also enjoyed finding new ways to answer questions or solve problems. As a boy, for example, he decided to find a way to measure the speed of the wind. On a windy day, he measured how far he could jump with the wind at his back. Then he measured how far he could jump with the (^^)wind in his face. From the difference between the two jumps, he made his own measure of the strength of the wind.
Strangely, Newton became a much better student after a boy kicked him in the stomach. The boy was one of the best students in the school. Newton decided to get even by getting higher marks the boy who kicked him. In a short time, Newton became the top student at the school.
Newton left school to help on the family farm. It soon became clear, however, that the boy was not a good farmer. He spent his time solving mathematical problems, instead of taking care of the crops. He spent hours(^^) visiting a book store in town, instead of selling his vegetables in the market. An uncle decided that Newton would do better as a student than as (^^) a farmer, so he helped(^^) the young man enter Cambridge University to study mathematics. Newton completed his university study five years later, in 1665. He was 22 years old.
At the time, a deadly plague was spreading across England. To escape the disease, Newton returned to the family farm. He did more thinking than farming. In doing so, he found the answers to some of the greatest mysteries of science.
Newton used his great skill in mathematics to form a better understanding of the world and the universe. He used methods he had learned as a boy in making things. He experimented. Then he studied the results and used what he had learned to design new experiments.
Newton’s work led him to create a new method in mathematics for measuring areas curved in shape. He also used it to find how much material was contented in solid objects. The method he created became known as integral calculus.
One day, sitting in the garden, Newton watched an apple fall from a tree. He began to wonder if the same force that pulled the apple down also kept the moon circling the earth. Newton believed it was. And he believed it could be measured. He called the force “Gravity”. He began to examine it carefully. He decided that the strength of the force keeping a planet in orbit around the sun depended on two things. One was the amount of mass in the planet and the sun. The other was how far apart they were.
Newton was able to find the exact relationship between distance and gravity. He multiplied the mass of one space object by the mass of the other. Then he divided that number by the square of their distance apart. The result was the strength of the gravity force that tied them to each other.
Newton proved his idea by measuring how much gravity force would be needed to keep the moon orbiting the Earth (ủa, phải viết hoa à cô?). Then he measured the mass of the Earth and the moon, an the distance between them. He found that his measurement of the gravity force produced was not the same as the force needed, but the numbers were close.
Newton did not tell anyone about his discovery. He put it aside to work on other ideas. Later, with correct measurement of the size of the earth, he found that the numbers were exactly the same.
Newton spent time studying light and colors. He used a threesided piece of glass called a prism.
He sent a beam of sunlight through the prism. It fell on a white surface. The prism separated the beam of sunlight into the colorS of a rainbow. Newton believed that all these colors mixed together in light, produced the color white. He proved this by letting the beam of rainbow colored light pass thru another prism. This changed the colored light back to white light.
Newton’s study of light led him to learnt why faraway objects seen (^_^) thru a telescope do not seem sharp and clear. The curved glass lenses at each end of the telescope acted like prism. They produced a circle of colored light around an object. This created an unclear picture. A few years later, Newton built a different kind of telescope. It used a curved mirror to make faraway objects seem larger. Light reflected from the surface of the mirror, instead of passing through a curved glass lens. Newton’s reflecting telescope produced much clearer pictures than the old kind of telescope.
Years later, the British astronomer Edmund Halley visited Newton. He said he wanted Newton's help in finding an answer to a problem no one had been able to solve. The question was this: What is the path of a planet going around the sun? Newton immediately gave Halley the answer: an eggshaped path called an ellipse.
Halley was surprised. He asked for Newton’s proof. Newton no longer had the papers from his earlier work. He was able to recreate them, however. He showed them to Halley. He also showed Halley all his other scientific work.
Halley said Newton’s scientific discoveries were the greatest ever made. He urged Newton to share them with the world. Newton began to write a book that explained what he had done. It was published in 1687. Newton called his book “The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”. The book is considered the greatest scientific work ever written.
In his book, Newton explains the three natural laws of motion.
The first law is that an object not moving remains still. And one that is moving continues to move at an unchanging speed, so long as no outside force influences it. Objects in space continue to move because nothing exists in space to stop them. Newton’s second law of motion describes force. It says force equals the mass of an object, multiplied by the change in speed it produces in an object. His third law says that force every action, there is equal and opposite reaction.
From these three laws, Newton was able to show how the universe worked. He proved it with easily understood mathematics. Scientist everywhere accepted Newton’s ideas.
The leading English poet of Newton’s time, Alexander Pope, honored the scientist with these words: “ Nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night, God said: “let Newton be” – and all was light”.(em cũng ko hiểu cái câu nè cô ạ)
This special English program was written by Marilyn Christiano and Frank Beardsley. This is Sirley Griffith.
And this is Steve Ember. Listen again next week for another exploration program on the Voice of American.
Sửa lần cuối bởi bitron8x : 01032007 lúc 04:44 PM
Học tiếng Anh
chất lượng cao Lớp học OFFLINE của TiengAnh.com.vn Ngữ pháp, Ngữ âm, Giao tiếp, Luyện thi TOEIC 
English to Vietnamese translation English to Vietnamese translation English to Vietnamese translation 
Em không kịp làm bài Test II, bài này em sửa sau khi đã có đáp án của cô giáo. Chỗ in đậm là những lỗi của em.
Isaac Newton: One of History's Greatest Scientists.
This is Shirley Griffith.
And this is Steve Ember with the VOA Special English program, Exploration. Today we tell about one of the world’s greatest scientists, Isaac Newton.
Much of today’s science of physics is based on Newton’s discovery of the three laws of motion and his theory of gravity. Newton also developed one of the most powerful tools of mathematics. It is the method we call calculus. Late in his life, Newton said of his work: ”If I saw further than other men, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.
One of those giants was the great Italian scientist, Galileo. Galileo died the same year Newton was born. Another of the giants was the Polish scientist Nicolas Copernicus. He lived a hundred years before Newton. Copernicus had begun a scientific revolution. It led to a completely new understanding of how the universe worked. Galileo continued and expanded the work of Copernicus. Isaac Newton built on the ideas of these two scientists and others. He found and proved the answers for which they searched.
Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe England, on December 25th, 1642. He was born early. He was a small baby and very weak. No one expected him to survive. But he surprised everyone. He had one of the most powerful minds in history. And he lived until he was 84. Newton’s father died before he was born. His mother married again a few years later. She left Isaac with his grandmother.
The boy was not a good student. Yet he liked to make things, such as kites and clocks and simple machines.
Newton also enjoyed finding new ways to answer questions or solve problems. As a boy, for example, he decided to find a way to measure the speed of the wind. On a windy day, he measured how far he could jump with the wind at his back. Then he measured how far he could jump with the wind in his face. From the difference between the two jumps, he made his own measure of the strength of the wind.
Strangely, Newton became a much better student after a boy kicked him in the stomach. The boy was one of the best students in the school. Newton decided to get even by getting higher marks than the boy who kicked him. In a short time, Newton became the top student at the school.
Newton left school to help on the family farm. It soon became clear, however, that the boy was not a good farmer. He spent his time solving mathematical problems, instead of taking care of the crops. He spent hours visiting a book store in town, instead of selling his vegetables in the market. An uncle decided that Newton would do better as a student than as a farmer. So he helped the young man enter Cambridge University to study mathematics. Newton completed his university study five years later, in 1665. He was 22 years old.
At that time, a deadly plague was spreading across England. To escape the disease, Newton returned to the family farm. He did more thinking than farming. In doing so, he found the answers to some of the greatest mysteries of science.
Newton used his great skill in mathematics to form a better understanding of the world and the universe. He used methods he had learned as a boy in making things. He experimented. Then he studied the results and used what he had learned to design new experiments.
Newton’s work led him to create a new method in mathematics for measuring areas curved in shape. He also used it to find how much material was contained in solid objects. The method he created became now as integral calculus.
One day, sitting in the garden, Newton watched an apple fall from a tree. He began to wonder if the same force that pulled the apple down also kept the Moon circling the Earth. Newton believed it was. And he believed it could be measured. He called the force “gravity”. He began to examine it carefully. He decided that the strength of the force keeping a planet in orbit around the sun depended on two things. One was the amount of mass in the planet and the sun. The other was how far apart they were.
Newton was able to find the exact relationship between distance and gravity. He multiplied the mass of one space object by the mass of the other. Then he divided that number by the square of their distance apart. The result was the strength of the gravity force that tied them to each other.
Newton proved his idea by measuring how much gravity force would be needed to keep the moon orbiting the Earth. Then he measured the mass of the Earth and the moon, and the distance between them. He found that his measurement of the gravity force produced was not the same as the force needed. But the numbers were close.
Newton did not tell anyone about his discovery. He put it aside to work on other ideas. Later, with correct measurements of the size of the Earth, he found that the numbers were exactly the same.
Newton spent time studying light and colors. He used a threesided piece of glass called a prism.
He sent a beam of sunlight through the prism. It fell on a white surface. The prism separated the beam of sunlight into the colors of a rainbow . Newton believed that all these color – mixed together in light  produced the color white. He proved this by letting the beam of rainbow–color light pass through another prism. This changed the color light back to white light.
Newton’s study of light led him to learn why faraway objects seen through a telescope do not seem sharp and clear. The curved glass lenses at each end of the telescope acted like prisms. They produced a circle of colored light around an object. This created an unclear picture. A few years later, Newton built a different kind of telescope. It used a curved mirror to make faraway objects seem larger. Light reflected from the surface of the mirror, instead of passing through a curved glass lens. Newton’s reflecting telescope produced much clearer pictures than the old kind of telescope.
Years later, the British astronomer Edmund Halley visited Newton. He said he wanted Newton’s help in finding an answer to a problem no one had been able to solve. The question was this: what is the path of a planet going around the sun? Newton immediately gave Halley the answer: an egg shaped path called an ellipse. Halley was surprised. He asked for Newton’s proof. Newton no longer had the papers from his earlier work. He was able to recreate them, however. He showed them to Halley. He also showed Halley all his other scientific work.
Halley said Newton’s scientific discoveries were the greatest ever made. He urged Newton to share them with the world. Newton began to write a book that explained what he had done. It was published in 1687. Newton called his book “The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.” The book is considered the greatest scientific work ever written.
In his book, Newton explained the three natural laws of motion. The first law is that an object not moving remains still. And one that is moving continues to move at an unchanging speed, so long as no outside force influences it.
Objects in space continue to move, because nothing exists in space to stop them.
Newton’s second law of motion describes force. It says force equals the mass of an object multipled by the change in speed it produces in an object.
His third law says that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
From these three laws, Newton was able to show how the universe worked. He proved it with easily understood mathematics. Scientists everywhere accepted Newton’s ideas.
The leading English poet of Newton’s time, Alexander Pope honored the scientist with these words: “Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. God said: Let Newton be – and all was light”.
This Special English program was written by Marilyn Christiano and Frank Beardsley. This is Shirley Griffith.
And this is Steve Ember . Listen again next week for another Exploration program on the Voice of America.
cô ơi trả lời giúp em vớiNguyên văn bởi Dust in the Wind
Trong các thể loại thuộc văn chương thì thơ là thứ khó hiểu nhất. Đừng nói chi thơ nước ngoài, biểu phân tích thơ Việt Nam Maroon fân tích còn hổng nổi nữa là, hehe...Nguyên văn bởi Dust in the Wind
Nhưng vì cái danh "cô giáo" nên đành lục lọi tìm tòi cho ra mí câu này cho mọi người:
Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night
God said, Let Newton be!
and all was light
Tự nhiên im lìm trong bóng tối
Chúa bảo rằng Newton ra đời!
Và ánh sáng bừng lên khắp lối (Theo Wikipedia)
Cái nì lụm thôi, hổng fải Maroon dịch đâu nghen, đừng có khen làm tui tủi thân lắm đó,
Cô giáo hay quá .
Giờ mới dò lại xem lỗi sai . hichic, bận quá cô giáo
Tên riêng trong bài:
Isaac Newton.
Shirley Griffith.
Steve Ember
Galileo
Nicholas Copernicus
Woolsthorpe
Edmund Halley
Alexander Pope
Marilyn Christiano
Frank Beardsley
Isaac Newton, one of history’s greatest scientists.
This is Shirley Griffith.
And this is Steve Ember with the VOA special English program Explorations Today we tell about one of the world’s greatest scientists, Isaac Newton.
Much of today’s science of physics is based on Newton’s discovery of the three laws of motion and his theory of gravity. Newton also developed one of the most powerful tools of mathematics. It is the method we call calculus. Late in his life, Newton said of his work: “if I saw further than other men, it was because I stood on the shoulder of giants.”
One of those giants was the great Italian scientist, Galileo. Galileo died the same year Newton was born. Another of the giants was the Polish scientist Nicholas Copernicus. He lived 100 years before Newton. Copernicus had begun a scientific revolution. It led to a completely new understanding of how the universe worked. Galileo continued and expanded the work of Copernicus. Isaac Newton built on the ideas of these two scientists and others. He found and proved the answers for which they searched.
Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, England, on December 25th, 1642. He was born early. He was a small baby and very weak. No one expected him to survive. But he surprised everyone. He had one of the most powerful minds in history. And he lived until he was 84. Newton’s father died before he was born. His mother married again a few years later. She left Isaac with his grandmother.
The boy was not a good student. Yet he liked to make things, such as kites and clocks and simple machines.
Newton also enjoyed finding new ways to answer questions or solve problems. As a boy, for example, he decided to find a way to measure the speed of the wind. On a windy day, he measured how far he could jump with the wind at his back. Then he measured how far he could jump with the wind in his face. From the difference between the two jumps, he made his own measure of the strength of the wind.
Strangely, Newton became a much better student after a boy kicked him in the stomach. The boy was one of the best students in the school. Newton decided to get even by getting higher marks than the boy who kicked him. In a short time, Newton became the top student at the school.
Newton left school to help on the family farm. It soon became clear, however, that the boy was not a good farmer. He spent his time solving mathematical problems, instead of taking care of the crops. He spent hours visiting a bookstore in town, instead of selling his vegetables in the market. An uncle decided that Newton would do better as a student than as a farmer. So he helped the young men enter Cambridge University to study mathematics. Newton completed his university studies five years later, in 1665. He was 22 years old.
At that time, a deadly plague was spreading across England. To escape the disease, Newton returned to the family farm. He did more thinking than farming. In doing so, he found the answer to sum of the greatest mysteries of science.
Newton used his great skill in mathematics to form a better understanding of the world and the universe. He used methods he had learned as a boy in making things. He experimented. Then he studied the results and used what he had learned to design new experiments.
Newton’s work led him to create a new method in mathematics for measuring areas curved in shape. He also used it to find how much material was contained in solid objects. The method he created became now as integral calculus.
One day, sitting in the garden, Newton watched an apple fall from a tree. He began to wonder if the same force that pulled the apple down also kept the moon circling the earth. Newton believed it was. And he believed it could be measure. He called the force “gravity”. He began to examine it carefully. He decided that the strength of the force keeping a planet in orbit around the sun depended on two things. One was the amount of mass in the planet and the sun. The other was how far apart there were.
Newton was able to find the exact relationship between distance and gravity. He multiplied the mass of one space object by the mass of the other. Then he divided that number by the square of their distance apart. The result was the strength of the gravity force that tied them to each other.
Newton proved his idea by measuring how much gravity force would be needed to keep the moon orbiting the earth. Then he measured the mass of the earth and the moon, and the distance between them. He found that his measurement of the gravity force produced was not the same as the force needed. But the numbers were close.
Newton did not tell anyone about his discovery. He put it aside to work on other ideas. Later, with correct measurement of the size of the earth, he found that the numbers were exactly the same.
Newton spent time studying light and colour. He used a threesided piece of glass called a prism.
He sent a beam of sunlight through the prism. It fell on a white surface. The prism separated the beam of sunlight into the colours of a rainbow. Newton believed that all these colours – mixed together in light – produced the colour white. He proved this by letting beam of rainbow – coloured light pass through another prism. This changed the coloured light back to white light.
Newton’s study of light led him to learn why faraway objects seen through a telescope do not seem sharp and clear. The curved glass lenses at each end of the telescope acted like prisms. They produced a circle of coloured light around an object. This created an unclear picture. A few years later, Newton built a different kind of telescope. It used a curved mirror to make faraway objects seem larger. Light reflected from the surface of the mirror, instead of passing through a curved glass lens. Newton’s reflecting telescope produced much clearer pictures than the old kind of telescope.
Years later, the British astronomer Edmund Halley visited Newton. He said he wanted Newton help in finding an answer to a problem no one had been able to solve. The question was this: what is the path of a planet going around the sun? Newton immediately gave Halley the answer: an egg –shaped path called an ellipse.
Halley was surprised. He asked for Newton’s proof. Newton no longer had the papers from his earlier work. He was able to recreate them, however. He showed them to Halley. He also showed Halley all his other scientific work.
Halley said Newton’s scientific discoveries were the greatest ever made. He urged Newton to share them with the world. Newton began to write a book that explained what he had done. It was published in 1687. Newton called his book “the mathematical principles of natural philosophy”. The book is considered the greatest scientific work ever written.
In his book, Newton explains the three natural laws of motion. The first law is that an object not moving remains still. And one that is moving continues to move at an unchanging speed, so long as no outside force influences it.
Objects in space continue to move, because nothing exists in space to stop them. Newton’s second law of motion describes force. It says force equals the mass of an object, multiply by the change in speed it produces in an object. His third law says that every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
From these three laws, Newton was able to show how the universe worked, he proved it with easily understood mathematics. Scientists everywhere accepted Newton’s ideas. The leading English poet of Newton’s time, Alexander Pope, honored the scientist with these words “nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night, God said: ‘Let Newton be – and all was light’.
This special English program was written by Marilyn Christiano and Frank Beardsley. This is Shirley Griffith.
And this is Steve Ember. Listen again next week for another Explorations program on the Voice of America.
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