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Đề ti: TEST - PART I: Phonetic symbols

  1. #151
    Tham gia ngy
    Feb 2010
    Nơi cư ngụ
    DN,VN
    Bi gửi
    18
    Cm ơn
    12
    Được cm ơn 4 lần

    Mặc định

    c mấy từ em đon ko ra nn để trống+ mấy từ ko biết đng hay sai, c sửa dm em :
    'aɪzək 'nju:tn, wʌn əv 'hɪstrɪz 'greɪtəst 'saɪəntɪsts
    Isaac Newton , one of historic greatest scientists

    ɪs ɪz 'ʃɜ:li 'gri:fɪt.

    This is Shirley Griffith

    nd ɪs ɪz sti:v 'embǝ wɪ ǝ 'vi: oʊ eɪ 'speʃl 'ɪŋglɪʃ 'proʊgrm, ˌeksplǝ'reɪʃnz. tə'deɪ wi tel ə'baʊt wʌn əv ə wɜ:ldz 'greɪtəst 'saɪəntɪsts, 'aɪzək 'nju:tn.

    And this is Steve Ember with the VOA special English program, exploration. Today we tell about one of the world's greatest scientists, Isaac Newton.

    mʌtʃ əv tə'deɪz 'saɪəns əv 'fɪzɪks ɪz beɪst ɒn 'nj:utnz dɪ'skʌvəri əv ə θri: lɔ:z əv 'moʊʃn nd hɪz 'θɪəri əv 'grvəti. 'nj:utn 'ɔ:lsoʊ dɪ'veləpt wʌn əv ə məʊst 'paʊəfl tu:lz əv ˌmθə'mtiks. ɪt ɪz ǝ 'meθǝd wi kɔ:l 'klkjələs. leɪt ɪn hɪz laɪf, 'nju:tn sed əv hɪz wɜ:k: “ɪf aɪ sɔ: 'fɜ:ə n 'ʌə men, ɪt wəz bɪ'kɔ:z aɪ stʊd ɒn ə 'ʃoʊldəz əv 'dʒaɪənts.”

    Most of today’s science of physics is based on Newton’s discovery of the theory: laws of motion and his theory of gravity. Newton also developed one of the most powerful tools of mathematics. It is the method we call calculates. Laid in his life, Newton said of his work: “ if I so faster than other men, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants”

    wʌn əv oʊz 'dʒaɪənts wəz ə greɪt ɪ'tliən 'saɪəntɪst, glə'leɪoʊ. glə'leɪoʊ daɪd ə seɪm jɪə(r) 'nju:tn wəz bɔ:n. ə'nʌə əv ə 'dʒaɪənts wəz ə 'poʊlɪʃ 'saɪəntɪst 'nɪkələs koʊ'pɜ:nəkəs. hi lɪvd ə 'hʌndrəd jɪə(r)z bɪ'fɔ: 'nju:tn. koʊ'pɜ:nəkəs hd bɪ'gʌn ə ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk ˌrevə'lu:ʃn. ɪt led tu ə kəm'pli:tli nju: ˌʌndə'stndɪŋ əv haʊ ə 'ju:nɪvɜ:s wɜ:kt. glə'leɪoʊ kən'tɪnju:d nd ɪks'pndɪd ə wɜ:k əv koʊ'pɜ:nəkəs. 'aɪzək 'nju:tn bɪlt ɒn i aɪ'di:əz əv i:z tu: 'saɪəntɪsts nd 'ʌəz. hi faʊnd nd pru:vd i 'nsəz fɔ: wɪtʃ eɪ sɜ:tʃt.
    One of those giants was the great Italian scientist, Ga
    lileo. Galileo died the same year Newton was born. Another of the giants was the Polish scientist Nicholas Copernicus. He lived a hundred years before Newton . Copernicus had begun a scientific revolution. It led to a completely new understanding of how the universe worked. Galileo continued and expanded the work of Copernicus. Isaac Newton built on the ideas of this to scientists and others. He found and proved the answers for which they searched.


    'aɪzək 'nju:tn wəz bɔ:n ɪn 'wʊlzθɔ: p, 'ɪŋglənd, ɒn dɪ'sembə 'twenti-fɪfθ, sɪks'ti:n 'fɔ:ti-tu:. hi wəz bɔ:n 'ɜ:li. hi wəz ə smɔ:l 'beɪbi nd 'veri wi:k. noʊ wʌn ɪks'pektɪd hɪm tu sə'vaɪv. bʌt hi sə'praɪzd 'evrɪwʌn. hi hd wʌn əv ə moʊst 'paʊəfl maɪndz ɪn 'hɪstri. nd hi lɪvd ən'tɪl hi wəz 'eɪti-fɔ:. 'nju:tnz 'fɑ:ə daɪd bɪ'fɔ: hi wəz bɔ:n. hɪz 'mʌə 'mrid ə'gen ə fju: jiə(r)z leɪtə. ʃi: left 'aɪzək wɪ hɪz 'grndmʌə.
    Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe,England, on December 25th 1642. He was born early. He was a small baby and very weak. No one expected him to survive. But he surprised everyone He had one of the most powerful mains in history. And he lived until he was 84. Newton’s father died before he was born . His mother married again a few years later. She left Isaac with his grandmother.


    ə bɔɪ wəz nɒt ə gʊd 'stju:dnt. jet hi laɪkt tu meɪk θɪŋz, sʌtʃ s kaɪts nd klɒks nd 'sɪmpl mə'ʃi:nz.
    The boy was not a good student. Yet he liked to make things, such as kites and clocks and simple machines.

    'nju:tn 'ɔ:lsoʊ 'ɪnʤɔɪd 'faɪndɪη nju: weɪz tu 'nsə 'kwestʃənz ɔ: sɒlv prɒ'bləmz. s ə bɔɪ, fə ɪg'zmpl, hi dɪ'saɪdɪd tə faɪnd ə weɪ tə 'meʒə ə spi:d əv ə wɪnd. ɒn ə wɪndi deɪ, hi 'meʒəd haʊ fɑ: hi kʊd ʤʌmp wɪ ə wɪnd t hɪz bk. en hi 'meʒəd haʊ fɑ: hi kʊd ʤʌmp wɪ wɪnd ɪn hɪz feɪs. frəm ə 'dɪfrəns bɪ'twi:n ə tu: ʤʌmps, hi meɪd hɪz oʊn 'meʒə əv ə 'streŋθ əv ə wɪnd.

    Newton also enjoyed finding new ways to answer questions or solve problems . As a boy, for example, he decided to find a way to measure the speed of the wind. On a windy day, he measured how far he could jump with the wind at his back. Then he measured how far he could jump with wind in his face. From the difference between the two jumps , he made his own measure of the strength of the wind.

    'streɪnʤli, 'nju:tn bɪ'keɪm ə mʌʧ 'betə 'stju:dnt 'ɑ:ftə ə bɔɪ kɪkt hɪm ɪn ə 'stʌmək. ə bɔɪ wəz wʌn əv ə best 'stju:dnts ɪn ə sku:l. 'nju:tn dɪ'saɪdɪd tə get 'i:vn baɪ 'getɪŋ 'haɪə(r) mɑ:ks n ə bɔɪ hu: kɪkt hɪm. ɪn ə ʃɔ:t taɪm, 'nju:tn bɪ'keɪm ə tɒp 'stju:dnt t ə sku:l.

    Strangely, Newton became a much better student after a boy kicked him in the stomach.The boy was one of the best student in the school. Newton decided to get even by getting higher marks than the boy who kicked him. In a 4th time , Newton became the top student at the school.
    'nju:tn left sku:l tu help ɒn ə 'fmɪli fɑ:m. ɪt su:n bɪ'keɪm klɪə, haʊ'evə, ət ə bɔɪ wəz nɒt ə gʊd 'fɑ:mə. hi spent hɪz taɪm 'sɒlvɪŋ ˌmθə'mtɪkl prɒ'bləmz, ɪn'sted əv 'teɪkɪŋ keə əv ə krɒps. hi spent 'aʊəz 'vɪsɪtɪŋ ə bʊkstɔ: ɪn taʊn, ɪn'sted əv 'selɪŋ hɪz 'veʤtəblz ɪn ə 'mɑ:kɪt. ən 'ʌŋkl dɪ'saɪdɪd ət 'nju:tn wʊd du: 'betə s ə 'stju:dnt n ə 'fɑ:mə. soʊ hi help ə jʌŋ mn 'entə 'keɪmbri:ʤ ˌju:nɪ'vəsəti tu ˈstʌdi ˌmθə'mtɪks. 'nju:tn kəm'plɪtɪd hɪz ˌju:nɪ'vəsəti ˈstʌdiz faɪv jiə(r)z 'leɪtə, ɪn sɪks'ti:n 'sɪksti-faɪv. hi wəz 'twenti tu: jiə(r)z oʊld.

    Newton left school to help on the family farm. It soon became clear, however, that the boy was not a good farmer. He spent his time solving mathematical problems, instead of taking care of the crops. He spent owns visiting a bookstore in town, instead of selling his vegetable in the market. An uncle decided that Newton would do better as a student than a farmer. So he help the young man enter Cambridge university to study mathematics. Newton completed his university study 5 years later, in 1665. He was 22 years old.

    t t taɪm, ə 'dedli pleɪg wəz 'spredɪŋ ə'krɔ:s 'ɪŋglənd. tu ɪs'keɪp ə dɪ'zi:z, 'nju:tn rɪ'tɜ:nd tu ə 'fmɪli fɑ:m. hi dɪd mɔ: 'θɪŋkɪŋ n 'fɑ:mɪŋ. ɪn 'du:ɪŋ soʊ, hɪ foʊnd i 'nsəz tu sʌm əv ə 'greɪtəst 'mɪstəriz əv 'saɪəns.

    At that time, a deadly plaig was spreading across England. To escape the diseases, Newton returned to the family farm. He did more thinking than farming. In during so, he found the answer to some of the greatest mysteries of sciences.

    'nju:tn ju:zd hɪz greɪt skɪll ɪn ˌmθə'mtɪks tə fɔ:m ə 'betə ˌʌndə'stndɪŋ əv ə wɜ:ld nd ə 'ju:nɪvɜ:s. hi ju:zd 'meθədz hi həd lɜ:nd s ə bɔɪ ɪn 'meɪkɪŋ θɪŋz. hi ɪks'perɪmentɪd. en hi 'stʌdid ə rɪ'zʌlts nd ju:zd wɒt hi həd lɜ:nd tu dɪ'zaɪn nju: ɪks'perɪments.

    Newton used his great skill in mathematics to form a better understanding of the world and the universe. He used methods he had learned as a boy in making things. He experimented. Then he studied the results and used what he had learned to desizn new experiments.

    'nju:tnz wɜ:k led hɪm tə kri:'eɪt ə nju: 'meθəd ɪn ˌmθə'mtɪks fɔ: 'meʒərɪŋ 'eəriəz kɜ:vd ɪn ʃeɪp. hi 'ɔ:lsoʊ ju:zd ɪt tə faɪnd haʊ mʌʧ mə'tɪəriəl wəz kən'teɪnd ɪn 'sɒlɪd 'ɒbdʒɪkts. ə 'meθəd hi kri:'eɪtɪd bɪ'keɪm noʊn s 'ɪntɪgrəl 'klkjələs.

    Newton’s work led him to create a new method in mathematics for measuring areas curved in shape. He also used it to find how much material was contained in solid objects. The method he created became known as integral calculates .

    wʌn deɪ, 'sɪtɪŋ ɪn ə 'gɑ:dn, 'nju:tn wɒʧt ən 'pl fɔ:l frəm ə tri:. hi bɪ'gn tu 'wʌndə ɪf ə seɪm fɔ:s ət pʊld i 'pl doʊn 'ɔ:lsoʊ kept ə mu:n 'sɜ:klɪŋ i ɜ:θ. 'nju:tn bɪ'li:vd ɪt wəz. nd hi bɪ'li:vd ɪt kʊd bi 'meʒəd. hi kɔ:ld ə fɔ:s “'grvɪti”. hi bɪ'gn tə ig'zmɪn ɪt 'keəfəli. hi dɪ'saɪdɪd ət ə streŋθ əv ə fɔ:s 'ki: pɪŋ ə 'plnɪt ɪn 'ɔ:bɪt ə'raʊnd ə sʌn dɪ'pendɪd ɒn tu: θɪŋz. wʌn wəz i ə'maʊnt əv ms ɪn ə 'plnɪt nd ə sʌn. i 'ʌə wəz haʊ fɑ: ə'pɑ:t eɪ wə(r).

    One day, sitting in the garden, Newton watched an apple from a tree. He began to wonder if the same force that pull the apple down also kept the moon circling the earth. Newton believed it was . And he believed it could be measured. He called the force “ gravity” He began to examining it carefully. He decided that the strength of the force keeping a planet in around the sun depended on two things. One was the amount of mass in the planet and the sun . The other was how far apart they were.

    'nju:tn wəz 'eɪbl tə faɪnd i ɪg'zkt rɪ'leɪʃnʃɪp bɪ'twi:n 'dɪstəns nd 'grvɪti. hi 'mʌltɪplaɪd ə ms əv wʌn speɪs 'ɒbʤɪkt baɪ ə ms əv i 'ʌə. en hi dɪ'vaɪdɪd ət 'nʌmbə baɪ ə skweə(r) əv eə 'dɪstəns ə'pɑ:t. ə rɪ'zʌlt wəz ə streŋθ əv ə 'grvɪti fɔ:s ət taɪd əm tə i:ʧ 'ʌə.
    Newton was able to find the exact relationship between distance and gravity. He multiplied the mass of one space object by the mass of the other. Then he divided that number by the ...............of their distances apart. The result was the strength of the gravity force that tied them to each other

    'nju:tn pru:vd hɪz aɪ'diə baɪ 'meʒərɪŋ haʊ mʌʧ 'grvɪti fɔ:s wʊd bi 'ni:dɪd tə ki: p ə mu:n 'ɔ:bɪtɪŋ i ɜ:θ. en hi 'meʒəd ə ms əv i ɜ:θ nd ə mu:n, nd ə 'dɪstəns bɪ'twi:n əm. hi faʊnd ət hɪz 'meʒəmənt əv ə 'grvɪti fɔ:s prə'dju:st wəz nɒt ə seɪm s ə fɔ:s 'ni:dɪd. bʌt ə 'nʌmbəz wə(r) kloʊz.

    Newton proved his idea by measuring how much gravity force would be needed to keep the moon orbiting the earth. Then he measured the mass of the earth and the moon, and the distance between them. He found that his measurement of the gravity force produced was not the same as the force needed. But the numbers were close.

    'nju:tn dɪd nɒt tel 'enɪwʌn ə'baʊt hɪz dɪs'kʌvəri. hi pʊt ɪt ə'saɪd tu wɜ:k ɒn 'ʌə aɪ'diəz. 'leɪtə, wɪ kə'rekt 'meʒəmənts əv ə saɪz əv ə ɜ:θ, hi faʊnd ət ə 'nʌmbəz wəz ɪg'zkli ə seɪm.
    Newton did not tell anyone about his discovery . He put it aside to work on other ideas. Later, with correct measurements of the size of the earth, he found that the number was exactly the same.

    'nju:tn spent taɪm 'stʌdi:ɪŋ laɪt nd 'kʌləz. hɪ ju:zd ə θri-'saɪdɪd pi:s əv glɑ:s kɔ:ld ə 'prɪzəm.

    Newton spent time studying light and colors. He used a theory- sided pics of glass called a prism ( lăng knh)

    hi sent ə bi:m əv 'sʌnlaɪt θru: ə 'prɪzəm. ɪt fel ɒn ə waɪt 'sɜ:fɪs. ə 'prɪsəm 'sepəreɪtɪt ə bi:m əv 'sʌnlaɪt 'ɪntə ə 'kʌlə əv ə 'reɪnboʊ. 'nju:tn bɪ'li:vd t ɔ:l i:z 'kʌləz -- mɪkst tə'geə ɪn laɪt -- prə'dju:st ə 'kʌlə waɪt. hi pru:vd ɪs baɪ 'letɪŋ ə bi:m əv 'reɪnboʊ-'kʌləd laɪt ps θru: ə'nʌə 'prɪzəm. ɪs ʧeɪnʤd ə 'kʌləd laɪt bk tu waɪt laɪt.

    He sent a beam of sunlight through the prism( lăng knh) . It fell on a white surface . The prism separated the beam of sunlight into the color of a rainbow. Newton believed that all these colors --mixed together in light-- produced the color white.He proved this by letting the beam of rainbow color light pass through another prism. This changed the color light back to white light.

    'nju:tnz 'stʌdi əv laɪt led hɪm tə lɜ:n waɪ 'fɑ:rəweɪ 'ɒbʤɪkts si:n θru: ə 'telɪskoʊp du: nɒt si:m ʃɑ: p nd klɪə. ə kɜ:vd glɑ:s lenziz t i:ʧ end əv ə 'telɪskoʊp 'ktɪd laɪk 'prɪzəmz. eɪ prə'dju:st ə 'sɜ:kl əv 'kʌləd laɪt ə'raʊnd ən 'ɒbʤɪkt. ɪs kri:'eɪtɪd ən ʌn'kliə 'pɪkʧə. ə fju: jiə(r)z 'leɪtə, 'nju:tn bɪlt ə 'dɪfrənt kaɪnd əv 'telɪskoʊp. ɪt ju:zd ə kɜ:vd 'mɪrə tə meɪk 'fɑ:rəweɪ 'ɒbʤɪkts si:m 'lɑ:ʤə. laɪt rɪ'flektɪd frəm ə 'sɜ:fɪs əv ə 'mɪrə, ɪn'sted əv 'psɪŋ θru: ə kɜ:vd glɑ:s lenz. 'nju:tnz rɪ'flektɪŋ 'telɪskoʊp prə'dju:st mʌʧ 'kliərə 'pɪkʧəz n i oʊld kaɪnd əv 'telɪskoʊp.

    Newton’s study of late led him to learn why far away objects seen through a telescope do not seem sharp and clear. The curve glass lensless at each end of the telescope acted like prism. They produced a circle of color light around an object. This created an unclear picture. A few year later, Newton built a different kind of telescope. It used a curve mirror to make far away objects seem laze. Light reflected from the surface of the mirror, instead of passing through a curve glass lens( thau kinh ) . Newton’s reflecting telescope produced much clearer pictures than the old kind of telescope.

    jiə(r)z 'leɪtə, ə 'brɪtɪʃ ə'strɒnəmə 'edmənd 'hli 'vɪzɪtɪd 'nju:tn. hi sed hi wɒntɪd 'nju:tnz help ɪn 'faɪndɪŋ ən 'nsə tu ə 'prɒbləm noʊ wʌn hd bi:n 'eɪbl tu sɒlv. ə 'kwesʧn wəz ɪs : wɒt ɪz ə pθ əv ə 'plnɪt 'goʊɪŋ ə'raʊnd ə sʌn? 'nju:tn ɪ'mi:djətli geɪv 'hli i 'nsə : ən eg-ʃeɪpt pθ kɔ:ld ən ɪ'lɪps.

    Yearer later, the British astronomer Edmund Halley visited Newton. He said he wanted Newton’s help in finding an answer to a problem no one had been able to solve. The question was this: what is the path of a planet going around the sun? Newton immediately gave Halley the answer: an effect path called an elips.

    'hli wəz sə'praɪzd. hi: skt fɔ: 'nju:tnz pru:f. 'nju:tn noʊ 'lɔ:ŋgə hd

    ə 'peɪpəz frəm hɪz 'ɜ:liə(r) wɜ:k. hi wəz 'eɪbl tə ˌri:kri'eɪt əm, haʊ'evə. hi ʃoʊd em tə 'hli. hi 'ɔ:lsoʊ ʃoʊd 'hli ɔ:l hɪz 'ʌə ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk wɜ:k.
    Halley was surprised He asked for Newton’s proof. Newton no longer had the paper from his earlier work. He was able to recreate them, however. He found them to Halley. He also found Halley all his other scientific work .

    'hli sed 'nju:tnz ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk dɪ'skʌvəriz wə(r) ə 'greɪtəst 'evə meɪd. hi ɜ:ʤd 'nju:tn tu ʃeə əm wɪ ə wɜ:ld. 'nju:tn bɪ'gn tə raɪt ə bʊk ət ɪks'pleɪnd wɒt hi hd dʌn. ɪt wəz 'pʌblɪʃt ɪn sɪks'ti:n 'eɪti-'sevn. 'nju:tn kɔ:ld hɪz bʊk “ə ˌmθə'mtikl 'prɪnsəplz əv 'nʧərəl fə'lɒsəfi.” ə bʊk ɪz kən'sɪdəd ə 'greɪtəst ˌsaɪən'tɪfɪk wɜ:k 'evə 'rɪtn.

    Halley said Newton’s scientific discoveries were the greatest ever made. He ............Newton to share them with the world. Newton began to write a book that explained what he had done. It was published in 1687. Newton call his book “ the mathematical principle of natural ...........The book is considered the greatest scientific work ever writing.

    ɪn hɪz bʊk, 'nju:tn ɪks'pleɪnz ə θri: 'nʧərəl lɔ:z əv 'moʊʃn. ə fɜ:st lɔ: ɪz t ən 'ɒbʤɪkt nɒt 'mu:vɪŋ rɪ'meɪnz stɪl. nd wʌn ət ɪz 'mu:vɪŋ kən'tɪnju:z tu mu:v ət ən ʌn'ʧeɪndʒɪŋ spi:d, soʊ lɔ:ŋ s noʊ 'aʊtsaɪd fɔ:s 'ɪnflu:ənsɪz ɪt.

    In his book, Newton explains the theory natural law of motion. The first law that an object not moving remain still. And one that is moving continues to move at an unchanging speed, so long as no outside force influences it

    'ɒbʤɪkts ɪn speɪs kən'tɪnju: tu mu:v, bɪ'kɔ:z 'nʌθɪη ɪg'zɪsts ɪn speɪs tu stɒp əm. 'nju:tnz 'sekənd lɔ: əv 'moʊʃn dɪs'kraɪbz fɔ:s. ɪt sez fɔ:s 'i:kwəlz ə ms əv ən 'ɒbʤɪkt, 'mʌltɪplaɪd baɪ ə ʧeɪnʤ ɪn spi:d ɪt prə'du:sɪz ɪn ən 'ɒbʤɪkt. hɪz θɜ:d lɔ: sez t fɔ: 'evri 'kʃn, eə ɪz ən 'i:kwəl nd 'ɒpəzɪt ri:'kʃn.

    Objects in space continue to move , because nothing exists in space to stop them. Newton’s second law of moving describes' force. It said force equal the mass of an object, multiplied by the change in speed it produces in an object. His third law said that force every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

    frəm i:z θri: lɔ:z, 'nju:tn wəz 'eɪbl tə ʃoʊ haʊ ə 'ju:nɪvɜ:s wɜ:kt. hi pru:vd ɪt wɪ 'i:zɪli ˌʌndə'stu:d ˌmθə'mtiks. 'saɪəntɪst 'evriweə ək'septɪd 'nju:tnz aɪ'di:əz. ə 'li:dɪŋ 'ɪnglɪʃ 'poʊɪt əv 'nju:tnz taɪm, ˌlɪg'zndə poʊp, 'ɔ:nəd ə 'saɪəntɪst wɪ i:z wɜ:dz: “ 'neɪʧə nd 'neɪʧəz lɔ:z leɪ hɪd ɪn naɪt. gɒd sed: ‘let 'nju:tn bi’ – nd ɔ:l wəz laɪt.”

    From this theory law, Newton was able to found how the universe worked . He proved it with easily understood mathematics. Scientist everywhere accepted Newton’s ideas. The leading English ....... of Newton’s time, Alexander Pope, honored the scientist with these works: “ nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night. God said : “ let Newton be –and all was light.”

    ɪs 'speʃl 'ɪŋglɪʃ 'proʊgrm wəz 'rɪtn baɪ 'mrəlɪn ˌkristi'noʊ nd frŋk 'bɪədsli. ɪs ɪz 'ʃɜ:li 'gri:fɪt.

    This special English program was writing by Marilyn Christiano and Frank Beardsley . This is Shirley Griffith.

    nd ɪs ɪz sti:v 'embǝ. 'lɪsn ə'gen nekst wi:k fɔ: ə'nʌə ˌeksplǝ'reɪʃnz 'proʊgrm ɒn ə vɔɪs ǝv ǝ'merikǝ.

    And this is Steve Ember. Listen again next week for another exploration program on the voice of American
    Sửa l̀n cúi bởi nglanphuong1988 : 22-06-2010 lúc 01:22 PM

    Lich khai giang TOEIC Academy


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    Isaac Newton, one of history’s greatest scientists



    This is Shirley Griffith.

    And this is Steve Ember with the VOA Special English Program, Explorations. Today we tell

    about one of the world’s greatest scientists,Isaac Newton.



    Much of today’s science of physics is based on Newton’s discovery of the three laws of

    motion and his theory of gravity. Newton also developed one of the most powerful tools of

    mathematics. It is the method we call calculus. Late in his life, Newton said of his work:”If I

    sawfurther than other men, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.”




    One of those giants were the great Italian scientist, Galileo. Galileo died the same year

    Newton was born. Another of the giants was the Polish scientist,Nicholas Copernicus. He

    lived a hundred years before Newton. Copernicus had begun a scientific revolution. It led to

    completely new understanding of how the universe worked. Galileo continued and expanded

    the work of Copernicus. Issac Newton built on the ideas of this two scientists and others. He

    found and proved the answer for with they searched.




    Issac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe , England, on 25th December 1642. He was born

    early.He was a small baby and very weak. No one expected him to survive.But he surprized

    everyone. He had one of the most powerful minds in history.And he lived until he was 84.

    Newton’s father died before he was born. His mother married again a few years later. She

    left Issac with his grandmother.




    The boy was not a good student. Yet he liked to make things, such as kites and clocks and

    simple machines.



    Newton also enjoyed finding new ways to answer questions or solve problems. As a boy,for

    example, he decided to find a way to measure the speed of the wind.On a windy day, he

    measured how far he could jump with the wind at his back. Then he measured how far he

    could jump with wind in his face. From the difference between the two jumps, he made his

    own measure of the strength of the wind.



    Strangely, Newton became a much better student after a boy kicked him in the stomach.

    The boy was one of the best students in the school. Newton decided to get even by getting

    higher marks than the boy who kicked him. In a short time, Newton became the top student

    at the school.




    Newton left school to help on the family farm. It soon became clear, however, that the boy

    was not a good farmer. He spent his time solving mathematical problems, instead of taking

    care of the crops. He spent ours visiting a bookstore in town, instead of selling his

    vegetables in the market. An uncle decided that Newton would do better as a student than a

    farmer. So he help the young man enter Cambridge University to study mathematics.

    Newton completed his university studies five years later, in 1665. He was 22 years old.




    At that time, a deadly plague was spreading across England. To escape the disease, Newton

    returned to the family farm. He did more thinking than farming. In doing so, he found the

    answers to some of the greatest mysteries of science.




    Newton used his great skill in mathematics to form a better understanding of the world and

    the universe. He used methods he had learned as a boy in making things. He experimented.

    Then he studied the results and used what he had learned to design new experiments.




    Newton’s work led him to create a new method in mathematics for measuring areas curved

    in shape. He also used it to find how much material was contained in solid objects. The

    method he created became known as integral calculus.




    One day, sitting in the garden, Newton watched an apple fall from a tree. He began to

    wonder if the same force that pulled the apple down also kept the Moon circling the Earth.

    Newton believed it was. And he believed it could be measured. He called the force

    ”gravity”.He began to examing it carefully. He decided that the strength of the force

    keeping a planet in orbit around the sun depended on two things. One was the amount of

    mass in the planet and the sun. The other was how far apart they were.



    Newton was able to find the exact relationship between distance and gravity. He multiplied

    the mass of one space object by the mass of the other. Then he divided that number by the

    square of their distance apart. The result was the strength of the gravity force that tied

    them to each other.




    Newton proved his idea by measuring how much gravity force would be needed to keep the

    Moon orbiting the Earth. Then he measured the mass of the Earth and the Moon, and the

    distance between them. He found that his measurement of the gravity force produced was

    not the same as the force needed. But the numbers were close.



    Newton did not tell anyone about his discovery. He put it aside to work on other ideas.

    Later, with correct measurements of the size of the Earth, he found that the numbers were

    exactly the same.



    Newton spent time standing light and colors. He used a three-sided piece of glass called a

    prism.



    He sent a bem of sunlight through the prism.It fell on a white surface. The prism separated

    the bem of sunlight into the color of a rainbow. Newton believed that all this colors mixed

    together in light - produced the color white. He proved this by letting the bem of rainbow –

    called light pass through another prism. This changed the colored light back to white light.




    Newton’s study of light led him to learn why far-away objects seen through a telescope do

    not seem sharp and clear. The curved glass lenses at each end of the telescope acted like

    prisms. They produced a circle of colored light around an object. This created an unclear

    picture. A few years later, Newton built a different kind of telescope. It used a curved mirror

    to make far-away objects seem larger. Light reflected from the surface of the mirror,

    instead of passing through a curved glass lenses. Newton’s reflecting telescope produced

    much clearer pictures than the old kind of telescope.




    Years later, the British astronomer Edmund Halley visited Newton. He said he wanted

    Newton’s help in finding an answer to a problem no one had been able to solve. The

    question was this: What is the path of a planet going around the sun? Newton immediately

    gave Halley the answer: an egg-shaped path called an ellipse.




    Halley was surprized. He asked for Newton’s proof. Newton no longer had the papers from

    his earlier work. He was able to recreated them, however. He showed them to Halley. He

    also showed Halley all his other scientific work.




    Hally said Newton’s scientific discoveries were the greatest ever made. He urged Newton to

    share them with the world. Newton began to write a book that explained what he had done.

    It was published in 1687. Newton called his book “ The mathematical principals of natural

    philosophy”. The book is considered the greatest scientific work ever written.




    In his book, Newton explains the three natural laws of motion. The first law is that an object

    not moving remains still. And one that is moving continues to move at an unchanging

    speed, so long as no outside force influences it. Objects in space continue to move, because

    nothing exists in space to stop them. Newton’s second law of motion discribes force. It says

    force equals the mass of an object, multiply by the change in speed it produces in an object.

    His third law says that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.




    From this three laws, Newton was able to show how the universe worked. He proved it with

    easily understood mathematics. Scientist everywhere accepted Newton’s ideas. The leading

    English poet of Newton’s time, Alexander Pope, honoured the scientist with this words:”

    Nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night. God said: Let Newton be – and all was light.”



    This Special English Program was written by Marilyn Christiano and Frank Beardsley.

    This is Shirley Griffith. And this is Steve Ember. Listen again nexk week for another

    Explorations Program on the voice of America.









    Bi ny mới nhn tưởng chữ Phạn thật nhưng lm rồi th thấy cũng ko khoai lắm. D g em cũng đ lm xong
    Sửa l̀n cúi bởi Nếu cn c ngy mai : 30-08-2010 lúc 01:25 PM

    Học từ vựng


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    Xin Chao Ca Nha. Minh La Thanh Vien Moi , Nhin Toi Day Thi Chang Biet Co Chuyen Gi Xay Ra ,giup Minh Nhe. Chi Minh Cach Hoc Nao De Co The Tiep Thu Dc Phan Phien Am Va Co The Doc Dc... Thanks Ca Nha Nhiu

    Thi thử TOEIC MIỄN PH

    Thi thử TOEIC tại TOEIC Academy

    Thi thử như thi thật, đề thi st đề thật

    n thi TOEIC miễn ph

    www.OnThiTOEIC.vn

    n thi TOEIC trực tuyến miễn ph với TOEIC Academy


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    hi ca nha. rat mong co giao M va cac ban giup minh hoc phan phien am nay nhe,(co ve nhu minh chua hoc phan phien am nay bao gio ca)minh la thanh vien moi,thanks so much.

    Facebook Group Học tiếng Anh MIỄN PH


  5. #155
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    anyone helps me download the listenings.i cant do ịtthank u

    Học tiếng Anh chất lượng cao

    Lớp học OFFLINE của TiengAnh.com.vn

    Ngữ php, Ngữ m, Giao tiếp, Luyện thi TOEIC

    English to Vietnamese translation

    English to Vietnamese translation

    English to Vietnamese translation


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    Link down Where??? Show me plz, thx :">

    Lich khai giang TOEIC Academy


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