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Hiện kết quả 1 đến 7 trong tổng số 7

Đề ti: TOEFL Methodology- Bi viết rất tm huyết của anh Nguyễn Hải H

  1. #1
    Tham gia ngy
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    Mặc định TOEFL Methodology- Bi viết rất tm huyết của anh Nguyễn Hải H

    Xin giới thiệu với cc bạn một phương php học TOEFL hiệu quả. Bi viết ny được viết bởi một gio vin dậy TOEFL kh nổi tiếng: Nguyễn Hải H.

    Dear friends,

    I have developed my own methodology for the TOEFL test. Hope it is a handy stuff for you

    Hai Ha, Nguyen
    Vietnam


    Objective
    Methodology
    Contents
    Reference Documents

    1. Objectives of TOEFL Preparation Course

    To help students understand secrets of SW and RC section of ETSs TOEFL tests (in other words, explain some of reasons why the TOEFL is constructed the way it is)

    - How SW and RC section of real TOEFL tests are constructed (SW and RC questions are constructed on the certain principles, only a small number of things are actually tested in the SW section, and very similar SW questions appear over and over again)

    - What test makers think to challenge test takers and why TOEFL tests are self-fulfilling failure. Unlike what ETS guys say, SW and RC questions are designed in weird ways to trap and fool you under time constraint

    - To help students grasp distinctive features of ETS TOEFL tests and recognize deviation of non-ETS TOEFL tests from ETS ones

    To arm students with methodologies to unravel secrets of SW and RC questions and simple but effective testing tactics to crack SW and RC questions (methodologies and testing tactics are further elaborated in the Methodology Section of this syllabus)


    Help students to achieve the highest possible TOEFL scores by only practising real/ETS TOEFL tests

    Lich khai giang TOEIC Academy


  2. Thnh vin sau cm ơn Certificate v bi viết hữu ch

    mienchiu (02-02-2009)

  3. #2
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    2. Methodology



    The common way of approach for both SW and RC section is based on 3 principles: effective (high score oriented), flexible (appropriate for students at all levels of English), and self-study oriented (students are well weaponed with powerful methodologies and testing tactics and they can apply these methodologies to their self-study. I am convinced that self-study is the best policy - my firsthand experiences)



    Notes: In my experiences, English teachers assume that TOEFL tests are completely English tests and that English proficiency is the key to the success on TOEFL. Accordingly, they often come up with and apply conventional methodologies that are commonly introduced and standardised in English courses in universities. However, I can argue that these academic methodologies do not work well in the land of ETS test makers who are employed to trap test takers rather than test their English. Trust me! I will prove my points in my classes.

    Học từ vựng


  4. #3
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    2.1 My own methodology for SW Section

    2.1.1 Structure (Sentence Completion):

    To answer the Structure questions, follow the steps below:

    Step 1: Read through the entire sentence, analyse structure of the sentence, and then figure out what part of the sentence is missed


    Step 2: Cover up answer choices and choose the answer choice that is most appropriate to what you think is omitted in the sentence


    Here are some examples to illustrate my methodology


    1/97

    6. Because the wood of the dogwood tree is very hard, _____ is used for objects, such as roller skate wheels, in which hardness is desired.

    (A) and

    (B) it

    (C) what

    (D) thus


    To crack the question above, follow the steps below:


    Step 1: Do not look at answer choices, look at the sentence first. Analyse the structure of the sentence. You can recognise that here is the complex sentence in which Because the wood of the dogwood tree is very hard is a subordinate clause (adverb clause). It can be inferred that the clause folowing the comma (,) is a main clause. Easily recognised, a subject should be filled in the blank to complete the main clause


    Step 2: Cover up answer choices and figure out that (B) is the only best choice


    13. Fossil records indicate _____ existing in the past have become extinct.

    (A) that many species of organisms

    (B) many species of organisms that

    (C) many species of organisms are

    (D) there are many organisms


    To crack the question above, follow the steps below:

    Step 1: Analyse the structure of the sentence. You can recognise that that is a complex sentence in which Fossil records is a subject and indicate is a verb (predicate) of the main clause. You can figure out that the sentence needs an object that can be a word, a noun phrase or a clause. Cover up the sentence, you can realise that have become is a verb. It can be inferred that an object, defining the verb indicate, must be a noun clause (in my classes, students are taught how to distinguish subordinate clauses and that a noun clause functions as a subject or an object of a complex sentence)

    Step 2: Cover up answer choices, it is easy to find out that (A) is the only best answer. that is a noun clause maker, species of organisms is a subject of the noun clause


    In addition, in my classes, students are also told that the sentence above can be rewritten in the other way, that is, Fossil records indicate that many species of organisms which exist in the past have become extinct

    11. _____ the diffusion of heat upward to the Earth's surface, the temperature within the Earth remains constant.

    (A) That

    (B) Despite

    (C) If

    (D) When

    Step 1: Analyse the sentence, and figure out that the temperature within the Earth remains constant is an independent clause. It is easily inferred that we should choose a preposition rather than a conjunction to complete the sentence

    Step 2: Cover up answer choices, and find out that (B) is the only best answer

    Notes:

    In my lectures, students will be familiar with some terms that are used in this section. Terms include nouns, pronouns, verbs, modifiers (such as adjectives, adverbs), subjects, articles, prepositions, conjunctions, sentences (single, compound, and complex), and subordinate clauses (Adverb, Adjective/Relative, Noun clauses). In my experiences, it takes just an hour for students to be familiar with these terms

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  5. #4
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    2.1.2 Methodology for Written Expression (Error Identification)

    As a matter of fact, written expression part is a clue hunting process. Clues lead you to understanding both correct and incorrect answers. All correct and incorrect answers of ETS tests are constructed on a system of clues that unconsciously puts ETS in a dilemma. I unequivocally state that analytical reasoning rather than English knowledge is the key to cracking these questions. Please also note that you cannot find out any clue in many questions of non-ETS practice tests. You must interpret the sentences in order to find out correct answers. Please remember that SW section tests your grammar rather than your vocabulary

    To illustrate my points, please observe the way I crack the following sentences:

    33. Some maple trees are raised for their sap, which has a high sugar content for yeilds sugar and syrup

    A B C D


    At the speed of light, you can find out clues that help to know choices A, B, and C are correct. Via POE (process of elimination), English teachers help students to recognise that choice D is incorrect. However, POE is only the second best policy that is not compelling enough to influence students. The question is why choice D is incorrect. Here is my way based on analytical reasoning rather than English knowledge:

    The clue is the word yields. The word yeilds can be either a noun or a verb. Assuming that the word yeilds is a noun. Look back at sentence, we find that if yields is a noun, it cannot be in the plural form before the noun sugar. From a grammatical perspective, the word yeilds would be correct if it was a singular noun yeild or there was a preposition, say, of between the word yeilds and sugar (yeilds of sugar). It can be concluded that yeilds must be a singular verb and as a result, the word for in choice D must be replaced by a relative pronoun, say, that to complete the adjective clause that modifies the noun content. A piece of cake! That way, even the most mentally challenged English student can understand my methodology! Also, that methodology is compelling enough to influence any English teacher

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  6. #5
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    2.2 Methodology for Reading Comprehension

    In my experiences, test takers face the two biggest problems on this section: vocabulary and time pressure. In addition, most test takers approach the Reading Comprehension section as if they get points just for reading. When you eventually take the TOEFL, you can bet that most of the people in the room with you will spend most of their alloted time reading and reading the passages, trying to understand every word. They will be wasting valuable time. (It is a piece of cake to understand why students take this way of approach on RC section. English teachers, who believe that TOEFL is just a linguistic test, often teach them in conventional ways. ETS guys understand this well and know how to trap test takers)

    Regarding challenges test takers encounter on RC section and typical features of TOEFL reading section, I strongly recommend the RC methodology introduced by The Princeton Review be applied to this syllabus

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  7. #6
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    Summary of The Princeton Review’s methodology:

    Ø Do not read the passage. Go to the questions first

    Ø Answer the questions in order of difficulty

    RC questions are categorised into 2 main groups of questions: Specific Questions and General Questions. Specific questions include “lead word” questions/restatement questions, vocabulary-in-context and reference questions and except/not questions. General questions include main idea/tone/attitude/purpose, “before and after” questions, inference questions, and organization questions

    First do the specific questions:

    Lead words – use the words in the question to lead you to the answer. Sometimes, you need to paraphrase the answer you found.
    Vocabulary-in-context questions – make up your own word to replace the word in question
    Reference questions – plug each answer choice back into the sentence and see if the sentence makes sense. Remember, pronouns must agree in number and gender with the nouns they replace
    Except/Not questions – use lead words from the question or from the answer choices

    Then tackle the general questions:

    1. Main idea – use the specific questions to find the main idea

    2. “Before/after” questions – use the first or last sentence of the passage

    3. Inference – use lead words and look for a paraphrase, use POE (process of elimination)

    4. Organization – use transitional signals…

    Ø Never get stuck on one question

    Ø Use POE to eliminate, using common sense and outside knowledge if you can. Guess from what’s left

    Please also note that here is a summary of Princeton Review’s methodology. It will be further elaborated on ETS questions during my lectures. Specific strategies will be developed for each type of question.

    3. Contents
    - Notes: I strongly recommend only ETS tests be introduced in TOEFL preparation classes for the two following reasons:

    - They are actual and accredited tests that have been published by the ETS. Non-ETS practice tests deviate from ETS tests. Practising ETS tests is the shortest and most effective way to TOEFL high scores

    - Practising ETS tests is the most powerful way to challenge students and qualify teachers. Non-ETS TOEFL publications, which are available in markets, are self-study oriented books full of detail explanations. There are no explanations but only answer keys in ETS tests (is this a reason why English teachers do not like to use ETS books? I hope not!)

    4. Reference Documents

    - All ETS tests (from 1995 to Jan 2004)

    - Cracking TOEFL, International Edition, 1998, The Princeton Review (for skills only)



    Nguyen Hai Ha

    City phone: 04 9161362

    Mobile phone: 0912108989
    Sửa l̀n cúi bởi tuanlong : 09-06-2006 lúc 10:53 AM

    Lich khai giang TOEIC Academy


  8. #7
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    Mặc định My methodology for the Written Expression

    I posted this stuff in Testmagic Forum

    Hello Michael and Testmagic members,

    I am happy to know that my methodology for the Structure and Written Expression has attracted interests of Testmagic members, even native English speakers. First, I would like to say that my methodology has been developed to help non-native English people, who have poor vocabulary and even cannot interpret questions of ETS, get high scores on the Structure and Written Expression of the TOEFL tests. In terms of the Written Expression (Error Identification) section, after 8 years of studying and instructing TOEFL, I have come to recognise the common rule on which the ETS bases to construct questions for this section, that is, wrong answers of the Error Identification of ETS are absolutely are backed up by clues in sentences themselves. For other answer choices (I mean right ones) are often backed up by clues, helping test takers recognise correct answer choices. However, in many cases, although I already figured out a clue that leads me to a wrong answer, from grammatical perspectives I could not find out any clue to confirm why one of the right answer choices is right! (please also note that I assume I do not interpret a sentence). My simple reasoning is that, from grammatical views, if you cannot figure out any clue to know whether an answer choice is correct or incorrect, it is not certainly incorrect (in light of my methodology).
    OK, now I show you how ETS thinks to construct a sentence for the Error Identification section. Let's take a simple sentence:

    Bill, Marvin and Colin all participate in the TOEFL class

    Ok, assume you are ETS's test maker. You are supposed to underline 4 words or phrases of which a word (phrase) is modified into the wrong answer choice. In a simple scenario, I assume we, test makers, underline 2 words in the sentence, 'all' and 'the'
    Bill, Marvin and Colin all participate in the TOEFL class
    Now, you, test makers, are supposed to falsify one of two words. Suppose we take the word 'all'. Before doing this, ETS's test makers think why a word 'all' is correct in the sentence above. A piece of cake, the word 'all' is correct because the subject consists of 3 nouns (Bill, Marvin and Colin - more than 2 nouns). Now ETS may think 'all' should be replaced by the word 'both'
    Here may be ETS's question:
    Bill, Marvin and Colin both participate in the TOEFL class
    Ok, now assuming you are test takers. Think in the same way test makers do while constructing the sentence. The subject, including 3 nouns, is the clue helping you recognise 'both' is the incorrect answer. Our work is completed? yes, it is for test takers but it is not for test instructor. One of you, Testmagic guys, wonders why 'the' is a correct answer, why not 'a'? I believe that both native English people and non-native ones cannot answer this question. In the eyes of standard English grammar, the definite article 'the' can be used before any noun, singular, plural, coun, and noncount, when the noun is specific. How do you know 'TOEFL class' in the sentence is specific or not? no clue at all here! OK, back to my methodology. If an answer choice is not backed up by any clue, it cannot be incorrect!
    I will tell you that ETS may extract the sentence from an essay or book that talks about Bill, Marvil and Colin and 'TOEFL class" is specified in the essay. We do not read the essay. In other words, we have no context to determine 'TOEFL class' is specific or not!

    Please note that clue does not come from your interpreting meaning of the sentence but from your understanding about the sentence structure. My methodology is dedicated to non-native English speakers, who are not good at English vocabulary!

    OK, now observe my explanation for one of ETS's TOEFL question:

    Some maple trees are raised for their sap, which has a high sugar content for yeilds sugar and syrup

    At the speed of light, you can find out clues that help to know choices A, B, and C are correct. First, we look at choice (A) 'some'. In our life, we often hear people say: some students ('some' determines a plural noun), some day ('some' determines a singlular noun, and some water ('some' determines an uncount noun). It is concluded that 'some' - determiner - can go with any type of noun. In other words, ETS cannot come up with any clue to make it wrong. No clue no wrong answers! Ok, next, look at choice (B) 'are raised'. No need to explain why the choice (B) is correct. It is too easy. But you can think in which ways ETS can make this choice wrong. I say only two cases: 'is raised' or 'are risen' (remember 'rise' is an intransitive verb so it cannot be used in passive voice forms). The choice (C) is correct because it is a subordinator of an adjective clause that modifies the noun 'sap'. OK, the choice (D) is incorrect. Why? What clue leads us to that incorrect answer? Here is my way based on analytical reasoning rather than English knowledge:

    The clue is the word yields. I assume that you are not native English speakers and that you are not good at English and cannot interpret the sentence. However, I am sure that you may know the word yeilds can be either a noun or a verb. Assuming that the word yeilds is a noun. Look back at sentence, we find that if yields is a noun, it cannot be in the plural form before the noun sugar. From a grammatical perspective, the word yeilds would be correct if it was a singular noun yeild or there was a preposition, say, of between the word yeilds and sugar (yeilds of sugar). It can be concluded that yeilds must be a singular verb and as a result, the word for in choice D must be replaced by a relative pronoun, say, that to complete the adjective clause that modifies the noun content. A piece of cake! That way, even the most mentally challenged English student can understand my methodology! Also, that methodology is compelling enough to influence any educated native English people
    Thanks for your interests!


  9. 6 thnh vin cm ơn NguyenHaiHa v bi viết hữu ch

    alex_del (28-08-2007),anhhoanbeo (04-12-2008),Le Manh Hung (11-11-2007),nắng hồng (09-01-2010),nghiacnshbk (25-04-2010),thuy phuong (11-09-2007)

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