Sometimes the normal S – V order in a sentence is revered ( verb – subject porder ). It is called ‘inversion of subject and verb’
The purpose of this are :
e.g : I have never asked her for money. à Never have I asked her for money.They are two main kinds of inversion
- For emphasis
- For literacy purpose
- To make interrogative sentences.
_An auxiliary verb comes before the subject and the rest of the verb comes after the subject. If there is no auxiliary verb ‘do, does, did’ is used.
e.g : He never paid attention to me. à Never did he pay attention to me.
_The whole verb comes before the sunject ‘do, does, did’ aren’t used.
e.g : An ancient acstle stood on the top of the hill. à On the top of the hill stood an ancient castle
A. With adverbs and adverbial expressions
I. Iversion with adverns ( adverbials ) of place:
_Adverb / adverbials of place don’t usually have front position. Sometimes they are put at the beginning of sentences and inversion takes place.
Adv (Adverbial) of place à verb à subject
e.g : A large policeman stood at the door. à At the door stood a large policeman.
Remark : We invert the whole verb, not auxiliary verb.
The subject must be a noun.
1.With ‘ here, there, firt, last’
e.g : There comes the taxi we are waiting.
Here are our passpots.
Last went the elephant.
N.B : _The progressive tenses aren’t used.
e.g : The teacher is coming there. à can’t invert
_’Here’ and ‘there’ + be
* to give sth to sb e.g : Here is a cup of coffee for you.
* to identify location e.g : Here is a mouse. There is a plan.
2. With adverbial phreases of place beginning with prepositions
( in / at / on / from / under / above, etc )
e.g : From the sky came the rain.
N.B : a. If the verb is in the progressive tense, we can put the present participle at the beginning, before the adverbial phrase of place.
e.g : Two handsome boys are sitting near the door.
à near the door are sitting two handsome boys.
à Sitting near the door are two handsome boys.
b. Inversion of this type happens with
* verb of position : stand / sit / lie / hang…
e.g : The cat are lying in the bed, thinking of her future husband.
à Lying in the bed was the cat, thinking of her future husband.
* Verb of movement : come / run / walk / fly / arrive …
e.g : Over the field was flying a flock of birds.
* Verb of states : live / die/ be born / exist …
e.g : One upon a time, there live a man who could turn back the clock .
II. With a negative or semi-negative adverbs and adverbial:
_Adverbs, adverbials with a negative or near-negative meaning, maybe used at the beginning of a sentence and inversion happens
Adv / adv phrase à auxiliary V à S à V …
e.g : I’ll never forget these days together.à Never will I forget these days together.
N.B : We invert the auxiliary verbs only. If there is not an aux.verb ‘do, does, did’ are used.
e.g : He rarely set eye on me. à Rarely did he set eyes on me.
1. With ‘never’ :
e.g : Never has there been so much protect against the bomb.
2. With ‘Hardly … when ‘ and ‘ no sooner… than’
The structure is used for two actions in the past. One action followed the other immediately.
e.g : She finished university. After thet she got married.
à Hardly (Scarely ) she had finished university when she got married.
à No sooner she had finished university than she got married.
3. With ‘seldom’ and ‘rarely’ :
e.g : Seldom had I seen such a beautiful creature.
4. With ‘little’
e.g : He behaves so strangely and little do I understand.
5. With combinations with ‘only’ :
* Only + phrases
e.g : I have free time only on Sundays.
à Only on Sundays do I have free time.
Only with you do I feel happy.
* Only + clause
e.g : Only if you buy me a Mercedes shall I marry you.
6. With combinations with ‘no’
e.g : At no time did he pay attention to her.
For no reason should you quit school.
On no account can we refund customers.
7. With ‘not until’, ‘not till’
e.g : I couldn’t remember her name until yesterday.
à Not until yesterday could I remember her nam.
à Not until you are over 18 can you get married.
8. With ‘neither / nor’ ( in short, negative answer )
A : I can’t swim.
B : I can’t, too ( INCORRECT ) I also can’t swim (INCORRECT)
B : I can’t, either / Neither ( Nor) can I ( CORRECT )
Notes : We can use ‘ It is was + the emphasised part + that + clause’ for the same emphatic purpose.
e.g : I have free time only on Sundays.
à Only on Sundays do I feel free. à It’s only Sundays that I have free time.
9. With ‘not only… but also’; ‘ not only … but … as well ‘
e.g : We not only lost all our money but also came close the death.
à Not only did we lose all our money but also come close to death.
à Not only did we lose all our money but we came close to death.
à Not only did we lose all our money but come close to death as well.
B. With ‘so’, ‘such’ and some adverbials of frequency
When ‘so, such’ and adverbs / adverbials begin a sentence. It’s followed by ‘be’ or other aux.V, then the subject and the verb.
e.g : The new comer is so beautiful that all the boys admire her.
à So beautiful is the new comer that all the boys admire her.
C. Inversion with conditional sentences:
With a conditional sentence, we can omit ‘IF’ and bring aux.V to the beginning
When a conditional sentence contains : ‘should’, ‘were’, ‘had + PP’ we can leae out “IF’
N.B : We invert aux.V only.
The subject maybe a noun or pronoun.
I. Type 1:
In type 1 , we can replace the simple present in the ‘if’ clause by ‘ should + verb’
e.g : If he leaves me, I will commit suicide.
àShould he leave me, I will commit suicide.
N.B : The kind of conditional sentenxe is formal. Therefore, it is used in business English.
e.g : Should the goods arrive in a damaged condition, we shall send replacements.
The main clause is usually an imperative
The negative inversion is posible in full form.
e.g : If my dad doesn’t except my proposol, I’ll be upset. à Should my dad not acept my proposol, I’ll be upset.
II. Type 2 :
In type 2 we can replace the past subjunctive be were + to-infi . We can omit ‘if’ and bring ‘were’ to the beginning.
e.g : If I saw him now, I’d tell him about my decision.
à If I were to see him now, I’d tell him about my decision.
à Were I see him now, I’d tell him about my decision.
Notes : a. Negative inversion is posible, but only in the FULL form
e.g : If he didn’t pass the exam, his parents would be upset.
à Were he not to pass the exam, his parents would be upset.
b. If I were you / If I were in your position à Were I in your position / If I were in your shoesà to give advice.
II. Type 3 :
In type 3 we can omit ‘if’ and bring ‘had’ to the beginning.
e.g : If he has stopped, the accident wouldn’t have happened.
à Has he stopped, the accident wouldn’t have happened.
Note : The same type 2
D. When the object qualified by ‘ many, little, much or no’ begins the sentences.
e.g : I received a lot of help from him. à A lot of help did I receive from him.
Sửa lần cuối bởi trinhkimson : 02-09-2009 lúc 05:30 PM
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Sửa lần cuối bởi wellfrog : 09-11-2009 lúc 10:20 AM
mình cứ bị nhầm giữa cấu trúc ONLY đó
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