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bigstorm_29
30-09-2007, 06:37 PM
English Grammar - Reported speech
Statements
1) If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan says that she works in an office.

2) If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech. (see: Note)
Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan said that she worked in an office.

Backshift of tenses
from--- to
Simple Present--- Simple Past
Simple Past--- Past Perfect
Present Perfect---
Past Perfect
will--- would
Progressive forms
am/are/is ---was/were
was/were--- had been
has been ----
had been

Backshift of tenses
from--- to
Peter: "I work in the garden."--- Peter said that he worked in the garden.
Peter: "I worked in the garden."--- Peter said that he had worked in the garden.

Peter: "I have worked in the garden."---
Peter: "I had worked in the garden."
Peter: "I will work in the garden." ---Peter said that he would work in the garden.
Peter: "I can work in the garden."--- Peter said that he could work in the garden.
Peter: "I may work in the garden."--- Peter said that he might work in the garden.
Peter: "I would work in the garden."
(could, might, should, ought to)--- Peter: "I would work in the garden."
(could, might, should, ought to)
Progressive forms
Peter: "I'm working in the garden."--- Peter said that he was working in the garden.
Peter: "I was working in the garden."--- Peter said that he had been working in the garden.
Peter: "I have been working in the garden."---
Peter: "I had been working in the garden."
If the sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it as well.
Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday."---
Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.
Shifting of expressions of time

this (evening)--- that (evening)
today/this day-- that day
these (days)-- those (days)
now-- then
(a week) ago--- (a week) before
last weekend--- the weekend before / the previous weekend
here--- there
next (week)--- the following (week)
tomorrow ---the next/following day
Note:
In some cases the backshift of tenses is not necessary, e.g. when statements are still true.
John: "My brother is at Leipzig university."
John said that his brother was at Leipzig university. or
John said that his brother is at Leipzig university.
or
Mandy: "The sun rises in the East."
Mandy said that the sun rose in the East. or
Mandy said that the sun rises in the East

Reported commands
If you put a command into Reported speech there are some steps which are the same like in statements: (changing of the person, backshift of tenses, changing of expressions of time).
The form is mostly: form of to tell + to + infinitive.

Affirmative commands Negative commands
Father: "Do your homework." Teacher. "Don't talk to your neighbour."
Father told me to do my homework. The teacher told me not to talk to my neighbour.
Reported questions
If you put a question into Reported speech there are some steps which are the same like in statements: (changing of the person, backshift of tenses, changing of expressions of time).
In Reported speech there is no question anymore, the sentence becomes a statement.
That's why the word order is: subject - verb
Question without question words (yes/no questions):Peter: "Do you play football?" - Peter asked me whether (if) I played football.
Question with question words:
Peter: "When do you play football?" - Peter asked me when I played football.
NOTES:
Ngoài các phần cơ bản trên, c̣n có mấy cái notes nè, mấy bạn tham khảo thêm và bổ sung nhé:
1)khi câu nói trực tiếp thể hiện 1 chân lư hoặc 1 hđ lặp đi lặp lại thường xuyên th́ của động từ trong câu gián tiếp vẫn ko thay đổi
VD:he said :"My father always drinks coffee after dinner"----He said (that)his father always drinks coffee after dinner
2)Nếu lúc tường thuật ,điểm thời gian được đưa ra trong lối nói gián tiếp vẫn chưa qua,th́ của động từ và trạng từ chỉ thời gian vẫn được giữ nguyên
VD:He said :"I will come to your house tomorrow"----He said (that)he will come to my house tomorrow
3)câu nói diễn tả điều kiện loại 2,khi chuyển sang câu gián tiếp thành:would/could have+PP
VD:He said :"If I had enough money ,I could buy it"----He said if he had had enough money, he could have bought it"
4)Liên từ "that"trong ngữ cảnh trang trọng hoặc sau động từ reply,telegraph----cần thiết phải được dùng
VD:He replied that we ought to invest half the profits
5)Và điều cuối cùng cần lưu ư là phân biệt cách dùng :say ,tell,speak,talk
VD:The docter says there's nothing wrong with you
She didn't understand what they are talking about
Mr B can speak English very well
Did you tell me how to get there?
các bạn tự xem xét VD rùi đưa ra kết luận cho bản thân nhé

rembrant
07-10-2007, 09:10 AM
TÝnh tõ :
Động từ /danh từ + hậu tố =Tính từ

- Able ( có thể được ) : manageable ,valuable
- Ible ( giống nh­ able ) : permissible ,agreebly
- Ful ( đầy ) : boastful ,enjoyful,useful
- (i)an ( giai đoạn lịch sử) : victorian
- Ic : entergetic
- Ish : ( có phẩm chất của) : Foolish , reddish
- Ive : ( trở thành được ) : attractive
- Ly ( có phẩm chất của ) : friendly
- Ant : hestitant , repentant
- Ous ( bền bỉ) : studious ,humorous
- Al (thuộc về ) : parental,practical

Tiền tố + ADJ = thường mang tính tiêu cực

Những tiền tố ( prefixes ) thường được thêm vào tính tự Tiêu biểu như:
Un - : uncooked , unhappy
Im- : immoral , impractical
In- : incapable , inhuman
Dis -: dishonest , disgreeable
Il -: irregular

Pre – adj : trước
EG: This dates from before the war . It is pre-war.
Hyper ( hyperactive ) – Adj : siêu hạng

rembrant
07-10-2007, 09:32 AM
Bài tập chuyển từ trực tiếp sang gián tiếp
1, “Would you mind if I looked inside your bag, madam? “ said the policeman.
2, “ shall we walk there ? It’s not far “ he said “yes , let’s “ I said
3, “I’m taking my children to the zoo tomorrow “ she said ” to see the baby polar bear”
4, “ Shall we go to a walk ?” said peter “ I like walking “ said Ann “But at the moment my only comfortable walking shoes are being mended .What about going for a drive instead ?”
5,” Let ‘s eat out tonight “ said Ann “ too expensive “ objected Tom “ why don’t we go back to your flat and have scrambled eggs ?”
6, “ If i had the instruction manual i should /would know what to do “ said Bill.
7,He said “ What lovely weather”
8,He said to me “thank you “

rembrant
13-10-2007, 10:10 AM
Bà con ko ai có í định làm bài hở?.........( từ hờn thành dỗi rồi đấy........coi chừng:Devil: )

rembrant
13-10-2007, 10:37 AM
Thì của động từ khi chuyển từ câu gián tiếp sang câu trực tiếp không thay đổi khi :

1,Nếu nội dung trong câu trực tiếp là một sự thực hiển nhiên , một chân lý thì động từ tong câu gián tiếp không thay đổi .
Câu trực tiếp: “the sun rises in the East and sets in the West”
Câu gián tiếp: He said that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

2,Khi động từ tường thuật ở thì hiện tại đơn , hiện tại hoàn thành hoặc tương lai đơn thì động từ trong lời nói gián tiếp không thay đổi .
Câu trực tiếp: He says /has said / will say “I watch TV everyday”
Câu gián tiếp : He says / has said / will say that watches TV everyday.
NHững động từ sau cũng không thay đổi trong câu gián tiếp :
- Would , could , should , ought to , had better , used to , would rather , might , must.
trực tiếp: He said “i used to watch TV every day”
gián tiếp : He said that he used to watch TV everyday.

3,Những động từ sau wish trong câu mong ước cũng không thay đổi :
Trực tiếp: She said “I wish I were a miss world”
Gián tiếp : She said that she wished she were a miss world.


II, Thì của động từ ở câu trực tiếp là quá khứ khi chuyển sang gián tiếp ko thay đổi khi :

A,Theo lý thuyết thời quá khứ khi chuyển sang gián tiếp thì trở thành thời quá khứ hoàn thành , nhưng trong ngôn ngữ nói tiếng anh thì nó thường là không thay đổi , điều này có thể được sử dụng nếu nó không gây ra sự nhầm lẫn gì về thời của hành động ( liên quan đến thời gian )

EG : He said “ I loved you”
 He said he had loved her
Nhưng nói He said “ Ann arrived on Monday “
 He said arrived /had arrived on Monday .

B.THì quá khứ tiếp diễn khi chuyển sang gián tiếp thì trở thành thời quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn nhưng trong luyện tập thì nó thường không đổi ngoại trừ khi nó đề cập tới một hành động đã hoàn thành .
EG: She said “ we were thinking of selling the house but we have decided not to “
 She said that they had been thinking of selling the house but had decided not to .
Nhưng :
He said “ When i saw them they were playing tennis “
He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis .

C,Trong ngôn ngữ viết của tiếng anh thì quá khứ thường được chuyển sang thì quá khứ hoàn thành những có một số trường hợp ngoại trừ :

1, Thì quá khứ và quá khú tiếp diễn trong mệnh đề thời gian ko thày đổi một cách bình thường .
Động từ chính có thể không đổi hoặc không trở thành thì quá khứ hoàn thành .

2, thời quá khứ đơn được sử dụng để miêu tả bổ xung trạng thái của sự việc , hành động thì chuyển sang gián tiếp nó không thay đổi .
EG: She said “ I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road “
She said that when she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.



Một số động từ hữu ích khác để chuyển từ câu trực tiếp sang gián tiếp :
Add ; complain ; point on
Admit Deny; promise
Answer ; explain ; protest
Argue ; grumble ( cµu nhµu); remark
Assure + object ;object ; remind + object
Boast ; observe ; reply

Tùy thuộc vào hoàn cảnh ta có thể sử dụng một số động từ khác như :
Murmur (xì xào) , mutter ( lẩm bẩm ), shout , stammer( lèm pèm :D), whisper

Bark( sủa ) , growl , roar ( la hét) , scream, shriek (hét ), snarl( cằn nhằn,gầm gừ ) , sneer( nhạo báng) ,yell ( kêu la ).




Whether được ưu tiên hơn if khi :
1,Nhấn mạnh sự việc cần đến sự lựa chọn
Chó ýChú ý : Whether or not .
2,Whether + infinitive is possible after wonder , want to know :
Eg : “Shall I wait for them or go on ? “He wondered
He wondered whether to wait for them go on .

maithanhthuy
20-10-2007, 10:29 PM
1, “Would you mind if I looked inside your bag, madam? “ said the policeman.
->The policeman said if i would mind if he looked inside my bag
2, “ shall we walk there ? It’s not far “ he said “yes , let’s “ I said
->he suggested that we should walk there bcs it was not far and i said ok
3, “I’m taking my children to the zoo tomorrow “ she said ” to see the baby polar bear”
->She said she was talking to her children to the zoo the next day to see the baby polar bear.
4, “ Shall we go to a walk ?” said peter “ I like walking “ said Ann “But at the moment my only comfortable walking shoes are being mended .What about going for a drive instead ?”
->Peter said if they should go to a walk ,Ann said she liked walking but at that time her only comfortable walking shoes were being mended.She suggested going for for a drive instead.
5,” Let ‘s eat out tonight “ said Ann “ too expensive “ objected Tom “ why don’t we go back to your flat and have scrambled eggs ?”
->Ann suggested Tom eating out tonigh and Tom said:’it was too expensive and he suggested to back to her flat and had scrambled eggs
6, “ If i had the instruction manual i should /would know what to do “ said Bill.
->Bill said if he had the instruction manual he could be able know what to do
7,He said “ What lovely weather”
->He exclaimed that the weather was very lovely.
8,He said to me “thank you
->he thanked me
tui nạp bài ,khi nào có unit mới

maithanhthuy
23-10-2007, 01:19 PM
check đi chớ để còn chuyển sag unit mới mừ.:-w

Lan Anh Nguyen
24-11-2007, 11:40 PM
Bài tập chuyển từ trực tiếp sang gián tiếp
1, “Would you mind if I looked inside your bag, madam? “ said the policeman.
The policeman asked madam to look inside her bag.
2, “ shall we walk there ? It’s not far “ he said “yes , let’s “ I said
I asked him to walk there and he said yes.
3, “I’m taking my children to the zoo tomorrow “ she said ” to see the baby polar bear”
She said she was talking to her children to the zoo the next day to see the baby polar bear.
4, “ Shall we go to a walk ?” said peter “ I like walking “ said Ann “But at the moment my only comfortable walking shoes are being mended .What about going for a drive instead ?”
Peter offered Ann to go to a walk but Ann suggested Peter going for a drive instead because her only comfortable walking shoes were being mended at the moment

5,” Let ‘s eat out tonight “ said Ann “ too expensive “ objected Tom “ why don’t we go back to your flat and have scrambled eggs ?”
Tom advised Ann to go back to her flat and have scrambled eggs because eat out thatnight is too expensive
6, “ If i had the instruction manual i should /would know what to do “ said Bill.
Bill said that he should know what to do if he had the instruction manual
7,He said “ What lovely weather”
He said that the weather was lovely
8,He said to me “thank you “
He thanked me