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rembrant
04-09-2007, 03:28 PM
Grammar:
Mặc dù Unit 2 của chúng ta liên quan đến Modal Pefect nhưng theo tớ chúng ta cứ phải ôn lại phần Modal verb nè !! Phải phân biệt rõ ràng đã. Lúc làm bài lại loạn cào cào hết cả lên vừa phải chia thì vừa phải chọn trợ từ.....

Chiểu theo iu cầu một số bạn tớ.....cắt tỉa cái unit 2 kia sang bên nè !!
Thành một miền ngữ pháp màu mỡ.....về MOdal verb :D


A few basic grammatical rules applying to modal verbs

Modal verbs are NEVER used with other auxiliary verbs such as do, does, did etc. The negative is formed simply by adding "not" after the verb; questions are formed by inversion of the verb and subject:

You should not do that.

Could you pick me up when I've finished?

Modal verbs NEVER change form: you can never add an "-s" or "-ed", for example.

Modal verbs are NEVER followed by to, with the exception of ought to.

What sort of meanings do modals give to other verbs?

The meaning are usually connected with ideas of DOUBT, CERTAINTY, POSSIBILITY and PROBABILITY, OBLIGATION and PERMISSION (or lack of these). You will see that they are not used to talk about things that definitely exist, or events that definitely happened. These meanings are sometimes divided into two groups:

DEGREES OF CERTAINTY: certainty; probability; possibility; impossibility

OBLIGATION/FREEDOM TO ACT: permission,lack of permission; ability; obligation.

Let's look at each modal verb separately, and the functions they help to express:



Will

Making personal predictions

I don't think the Queen will ever abdicate.

I doubt if I'll stay here much longer.

Talking about the present with certainty (making deductions)

I'm sure you will understand that there is nothing the Department can do

There's a letter for you. It'll be from the bank: they said they'd be writing.

Talking about the future with certainty

I won't be in the office until 11; I've got a meeting.

Don't bother ringing: they'll have left for their 10 o'clock lecture.

Talking about the past with certainty

I'm sure you will have noticed that attendance has fallen sharply.

Reassuring someone

Don't worry! You'll settle down quickly, I'm sure.

It'll be all right! You won't have to speak by yourself.

Making a decision

For the main course I'll have grilled tuna.

I'm very tired. I think I'll stay at home tonight.

Making a semi-formal request

Will you open the window, please? It's very hot in here.

Sign this, will you?

Offering to do something

You stay there! I'll fetch the drinks.

Insistence; habitual behaviour

I'm not surprised you don't know what to do! You will keep talking in class.

Damn! My car won't start. I'll have to call the garage.

Making a promise or a threat

You can count on me! I'll be there at 8 o'clock sharp.

If you don't finish your dinner off, you'll go straight to bed!



Shall

Shall is a form of will, used mostly in the first person. Its use, however, is decreasing, and in any case in spoken English it would be contracted to "-ll" and be indistinguishable from will.

The only time you do need to use it is in questions, when:

Making offers

Shall I fetch you another glass of wine?

Making suggestions

Shall we go to the cinema tonight?



May & Might

May & might sometimes have virtually the same meaning; they are used to talk about possibilities in the past, present or future. ("Could" is also sometimes used).

May is sometimes a little bit "more sure" (50% chance); whereas might expresses more doubt (maybe only a 30% chance).

May & might are used, then, for:

Talking about the present or future with uncertainty

She may be back in her office: the lecture finished ten minutes ago.

I may go shopping tonight, I haven't decided yet.

England might win the World Cup, you never know.

Talking about the past with uncertainty

I'm surprised he failed. I suppose he might have been ill on the day of the exam.

They can also sometimes be used for talking about permission, but usually only in formal situations. Instead of saying May I open a window? we would say Is it all right/OK if I open a window? or Can I open a window? for example. You might, however, see:

Students may not borrow equipment without written permission.

May

Talking about things that can happen in certain situations

If the monitors are used in poorly lit places, some users may experience headaches.

Each nurse may be responsible for up to twenty patients.

With a similar meaning to although

The experiment may have been a success, but there is still a lot of work to be done. (= Although it was a success, there is still ...)

Might

Saying that something was possible, but did not actually happen

You saw me standing at the bus stop! You might have stopped and given me a lift!



Would

As the past of will, for example in indirect speech

"The next meeting will be in a month's time" becomes

He said the next meeting would be in a month's time.

Polite requests and offers (a 'softer' form of will)

Would you like another cup of tea?

Would you give me a ring after lunch?

I'd like the roast duck, please.

In conditionals, to indicate 'distance from reality': imagined, unreal, impossible situations

If I ruled the world, every day would be the first day of Spring.

It would have been better if you'd word processed your assignment.

After 'wish', to show regret or irritation over someone (or something's) refusal or insistence on doing something (present or future)

I wish you wouldn't keep interrupting me.

I wish it would snow.

(This is a complicated area! Check in a good grammar book for full details!)

Talking about past habits (similiar meaning to used to)

When I was small, we would always visit relatives on Christmas Day.

Future in the past

The assassination would become one of the key events of the century.



Can & Could

Talking about ability

Can you speak Mandarin? (present)
She could play the piano when she was five. (past)


Making requests

Can you give me a ring at about 10?
Could you speak up a bit please? (slightly more formal, polite or 'softer')

Asking permission

Can I ask you a question?
Could I ask you a personal question? (more formal, polite or indirect)

Reported speech
Could is used as the past of can.

He asked me if I could pick him up after work.

General possibility

You can drive when you're 17. (present)
Women couldn't vote until just after the First World War.

Choice and opportunities

If you want some help with your writing, you can come to classes, or you can get some 1:1 help.
We could go to Stratford tomorrow, but the forecast's not brilliant. (less definite)

Future probability
Could (NOT can) is sometimes used in the same way as might or may, often indicating something less definite.

When I leave university I might travel around a bit, I might do an MA or I suppose I could even get a job.

Present possibility

I think you could be right you know. (NOT can)
That can't be the right answer, it just doesn't make sense.

Past possibility

If I'd known the lecture had been cancelled, I could have stayed in bed longer.



Must
Examples here refer to British English; there is some variation in American English.

Necessity and obligation
Must is often used to indicate 'personal' obligation; what you think you yourself or other people/things must do. If the obligation comes from outside (eg a rule or law), then have to is often (but not always) preferred:

I really must get some exercise.
People must try to be more tolerant of each other.
You musn't look - promise?
If you own a car, you have to pay an annual road tax.

Strong advice and invitations

I think you really must make more of an effort.
You must go and see the film - it's brilliant.
You must come and see me next time you're in town.

Saying you think something is certain

This must be the place - there's a white car parked outside.
You must be mad.
What a suntan! You must have had great weather.

The negative is expresses by can't:

You're going to sell your guitar! You can't be serious!
She didn't wave - she can't have seen me.



Should

Giving advice

I think you should go for the Alfa rather than the Audi.
You shouldn't be drinking if you're on antibiotics.
You shouldn't have ordered that chocolate dessert - you're not going to finish it.

Obligation: weak form of must

The university should provide more sports facilities.
The equipment should be inspected regularly.

Deduction

The letter should get to you tomorrow - I posted it first class.

Things which didn't or may/may not have happened

I should have renewed my TV licence last month, but I forgot.
You shouldn't have spent so much time on that first question.

Ought to
Ought to usually has the same meaning as should, particularly in affirmative statements in the present:

You should/ought to get your hair cut.

Should is much more common (and easier to say!), so if you're not sure, use should.

Sưu tầm chính cống
Source : Quên rùi .........:D

Kon ti niu ....còn dài ....

rembrant
04-09-2007, 11:20 PM
Degree of certainty

"Degree of certainty" refers to how sure we are-what we think the chances are-that something is true. If we are sure that something is true in the present, we do not need to use a modal. For example, if I say, "Martha is sick," I am sure; I am stating a fact that I am sure. My degree of certainty here is 100%. If I am asked "Why isn't Martha in class?" and I am not sure of the reason, I can respond in the following ways:



1- She must be sick.

Here, I am 95% sure that she is (not 100%)

2- She may be sick.

Here, I am 50% sure that she is.

3- She might be sick.

Here, I am less than 50% sure that she is.

4- She could be sick.

Here, I am stating a mere guess. This is a very weak degree of certainty.

Try it yourself:


My grammar book is not on my desk. Where is it?

Answer with 100% degree of certainty:

with about 90% degree of certainty:

with about 50% degree of certainty:

with less than 50% degree of certainty:

with only making a guess.



The Negative:


Forming such sentences in the negative can be confusing. However, here is my attempt to help

you eliminate any confusion.

Read these sentences:1- Maria is not hungry.

I am 100% sure that she is not hungry.

2- I don't know why Maria is not eating with us. She may

not (or might not) be hungry.

I am 50% or less certain that she is not hungry.

3- Maria cannot be hungry. She has just had diner.

Here, I believe that there is no possibility that

Maria is hungry, but I am not 100% sure.

4- Maria is not eating. She must not be hungry.

Here, I am expressing a logical conclusion, a best guess.



So far we have discussed modals in the present time. Using modals in the past requires more understanding of the perfect
tense. It is safe to say that a modal in the past is really a more perfect. What is the modal perfect?
To answer this question, we need to refresh our memory of the perfect tense form. Do you remember? I am sure you do.

Perfect = verb to have + the past participle of a verb
Example: I have studied English for two years.

have + verb to study in the past participle = perfect tense.

So, a modal perfect = a modal + have + past participle.
Examples:

must have eaten
may have been
should have gone degrees of certainty
might have been
could have passed

If I have to respond to the question:

Why didn't Martha eat?
I can respond in the following ways:
1- Martha was not hungry.
(I am certain she is not)
2- Martha could not have been hungry.
(I believe it is impossible for her to have been hungry)
3- Martha must not have been hungry.
(I am making a logical conclusion)
4- Martha might not have been hungry.
(I am mentioning one possibility)

One more example:

Question: Juan was absent yesterday. Where was he?
Answer: I don't know. He may have been at home. He might have gone to a movie. He could have decided to go to the zoo because
the weather Was so nice.
You try it. What if you overhear Juan say, "My sister's plane was late yesterday. I had to wait almost three hours." Now what do you think?

Well done. I am sure you have done very well.


Degrees of certainty: Future Time:


We have examined the use of modals in the present and past times. Now let us examine their use in future time. Well, should and ought to can be used to express expectations about future events.
For example: Maria has been studying hard.
She should do well on the test tomorrow.
Or

She ought to do well on the test tomorrow.

In these two possible sentences, the speaker is saying,

"Maria will probably do well on the test. I expect her to do well. That is what I think will happen."

Your textbook, Understanding and Using English Grammar provides a wealth of examples and many exercises that would be very helpful here.

__________
Progressive forms of modals:

The progressive (or continuous as some texts call it) form of modals can be in present or past. Certainly you remember the formula for the progressive, don't you? Well, just to refresh your memory, it is verb to be + the verb in the -ing form.

So present progressive will be something like this:
I am studying grammar now.

And past progressive:

I was studying grammar last night.
Again, progressive is verb to be + a verb + -ing.
So, logically, a modal in the present progressive will be something like this:
Tom may be sleeping.
(modal) may (verb to be) be (verb) sleep with ing.
Another example: "All of the lights in Ann's room are turned off. She must be sleeping. "
Here is a tricky situation. Your remember we said that modals in the past are modals + perfect; example:
He must have been tired.


Then modals in the past progressive will have to be:

Modal + perfect progressive : Modal + have + been + verb + ing
She must have been sleeping

He might have been studying

She could have been playing

These mean that the action in progress at a time in the past.

Well, let us recapitulate. We discussed the modals, their meaning and their various uses.

Modals are helping words that are used to express:

(1) possibility, (2) ability, (3) degree of certainty, and (4) level of authority.

And we also stressed that :

the degree of possibility decreases as we use the past for of the modal:

I may visit you tonight. (50% chance that I will)

I might visit you tonight. (less than 50% chance I will)

I can run fast. (I am positively sure I can)

I could run fast. (I am not 100% sure - possibility may depend on something else)

Will you shut the door? (you are close to the door and the possibility of you shutting it is high)

Would you shut the door? (you are far from the door and you might not want to go shut it)

You should study harder. (I am advising you without authority)

You must study harder. (I am commanding you with authority)



Would and could in the past:


One more matter to tackle with is the use of would to express a repeated action in the past and the use of could to express ability in the past. I will try to simplify this as much as possible. Here it is:

When would is used in the past, it means "used to," for example:

When I was younger, I would run two hours every day.

This means that I used to run two hours every day and now I don't.



Another example:



When I was in Paris, I would spend hours walking up and down the Champs-Elysees.

This means that I used to do that when I was in Paris.

When could is used in the past, it means was able to.

For example: My girlfriend could lift the desk, but I could not.

This means that my girlfriend was able to lift the desk, but I was unable to.

Please note that your textbook has an excellent table on pp.199-200 "Summary Chart of Modals and Similar Expressions." I would certainly look at it carefully.

If you would like to do more exercises and practice using modals, you may try exercise 34 on page 207 in your Azar textbook. These questions will provide you with the opportunity to practice the different forms and uses of modals.



Lesson Summary:



In this lesson, we examined the English modals and we focused on three points:

1- what modals mean,

2- how they are used, and

3- when and under what conditions we can use them.

There are nine (9) main modals in English. They are:

shall, should

will, would,

can, could

may, might

must

Modals are used to help convey a specific meaning. They indicate degree of possibility, probability, authority, or ability.

Remember that would, could and might are used when the degree of probability is 50% less.
Should is used to offer advice and must is used to express an order or a command; so, the degree of authority is different between the two. Also notice that shall is no longer used in American English except in stating a question. For example, "Shall we go to the theater?" "Shall we call Mary?

Di kinh:wacko: ......m chẳng bt đ đủ chưa. Tnh tổng kết lại cho n ngắn với việt ho cho dễ hiểu nhỉ !!

Sẽ hệ thống lại sau !! By giờ cứ học vậy đ nhỉ !!

chau_90
05-09-2007, 08:13 PM
Bạn ơi! Dịch--> tiếng việt cho dễ hiểu chút được họk chứ tui dịch cứ thấy lủng củng sao áh

bigstorm_29
05-09-2007, 11:15 PM
Pót 1 số bài tập phần này làm đi rem ơi!

rembrant
06-09-2007, 02:23 AM
Một số nguyên tắc ngữ pháp cơ bản khi sử dụng "Động từ khuyết thiếu ":

1, Không bao giờ đi với các trợ động từ.
2, Không bao giờ thay đổi dạng form có sẵn khiến động từ thêm "-s" hoặc "-ed"
3, Không bao giờ động từ đi với " to " ngoại trừ Ought to.


Will

Đưa ra những dự đoán mang quan điểm cá nhân.

I don't think the Queen will ever abdicate.

I doubt if I'll stay here much longer.

Nói về hiện tại với sự chắc chắn mang tính suy luận.

I'm sure you will understand that there is nothing the Department can do

There's a letter for you. It'll be from the bank: they said they'd be writing.

Nói về tương lai với sự chắc chắn .

I won't be in the office until 11; I've got a meeting.

Don't bother ringing: they'll have left for their 10 o'clock lecture.

Nói về quá khứ với sự chắc chắn.

I'm sure you will have noticed that attendance has fallen sharply.

Cam đoan với ai.

Don't worry! You'll settle down quickly, I'm sure.

It'll be all right! You won't have to speak by yourself.

Đưa ra quyết định tại thời điểm nói.

For the main course I'll have grilled tuna.

I'm very tired. I think I'll stay at home tonight.

Đưa ra lời thỉnh cầu đề nghị.

Will you open the window, please? It's very hot in here.

Sign this, will you?

Đề nghị làm gì !

You stay there! I'll fetch the drinks.

Sự nhất nhất khăng khăng , thói quen , hành động quen thuộc.

I'm not surprised you don't know what to do! You will keep talking in class.

Damn! My car won't start. I'll have to call the garage.

Đưa ra một lời hứa hoặc sự đe doạ.

You can count on me! I'll be there at 8 o'clock sharp.

If you don't finish your dinner off, you'll go straight to bed!

Shall
Shall là một dạng của Will , được sử dụng với ngôi I và We , tuy nhiên nó mang tính hạn hẹp hơn và ở một số trường hợp nó được viết "-ll" khó có thể phân biệt với will.


Nó sử dụng trong một số câu hỏi :

Đưa ra lời đề nghị.

Shall I fetch you another glass of wine?

Đưa ra ý kiến , đóng góp.

Shall we go to the cinema tonight?

May & Might
May và Might trong thực tế thỉnh thoảng mang những ý nghĩa giống nhau , chúng được dùng nói về những khả năng trong quá khứ , hiện tại , tương lai.
"May" có độ chắc là 50%
"Might" với độ chắc là 30%

May & might được sử dụng cho mục đích :
Đề cập đến hiện tại , tương lai với sự ko chắc chắn.

She may be back in her office: the lecture finished ten minutes ago.

I may go shopping tonight, I haven't decided yet.

England might win the World Cup, you never know.

Đề cập đến quá khứ với sự ko chắc chắn.

I'm surprised he failed. I suppose he might have been ill on the day of the exam.

Thỉng thoảng được sử dụng để đề cập đến sự cho phép ,sự chấp nhận.
Instead of saying May I open a window? we would say Is it all right/OK if I open a window? or Can I open a window? for example. You might, however, see:

May
Nói về sự việc có thể xảy ra trong tình huống chắc chắn

If the monitors are used in poorly lit places, some users may experience headaches.

Each nurse may be responsible for up to twenty patients.

Với ý nghĩa tương tự giống although.

The experiment may have been a success, but there is still a lot of work to be done. (= Although it was a success, there is still ...)

Might
Đề cập đến một việc nào đó đã có thể xảy ra , nhưng sự thật rằng nó đã ko xảy ra.

You saw me standing at the bus stop! You might have stopped and given me a lift!


Would

Quá khứ cuả will
"The next meeting will be in a month's time" becomes

He said the next meeting would be in a month's time.

Polite requests and offers (a 'softer' form of will)

Would you like another cup of tea?

Would you give me a ring after lunch?

I'd like the roast duck, please.

Sự việc xa với thực tế , ko thực , ko thể thực hiện.If I ruled the world, every day would be the first day of Spring.

It would have been better if you'd word processed your assignment.

Sau "Wish" thái độ ko hài lòng ,nản
I wish you wouldn't keep interrupting me.

I wish it would snow.

(This is a complicated area! Check in a good grammar book for full details!)

Talking about past habits (similiar meaning to used to)

When I was small, we would always visit relatives on Christmas Day.

Future in the past
The assassination would become one of the key events of the century.

Can & Could
Đề cập đến khả năng.

Can you speak Mandarin? (present)
She could play the piano when she was five. (past)


Lời thỉnh cầu ,lời yêu cầu.

Can you give me a ring at about 10?
Could you speak up a bit please? (slightly more formal, polite or 'softer')

Yêu cầu sự cho phép sự chấp nhận.

Can I ask you a question?
Could I ask you a personal question? (more formal, polite or indirect)

Câu tường thuật
Could is used as the past of can.

He asked me if I could pick him up after work.

Khả năng , năng khiếu chung chung của con người.

You can drive when you're 17. (present)
Women couldn't vote until just after the First World War.

Sự lựa chọn và cơ hội.

If you want some help with your writing, you can come to classes, or you can get some 1:1 help.
We could go to Stratford tomorrow, but the forecast's not brilliant. (less definite)

Sự có khả năng xảy ra ở tương lai.
Could (NOT can) is sometimes used in the same way as might or may, often indicating something less definite.

When I leave university I might travel around a bit, I might do an MA or I suppose I could even get a job.

Present possibility

I think you could be right you know. (NOT can)
That can't be the right answer, it just doesn't make sense.

Past possibility

If I'd known the lecture had been cancelled, I could have stayed in bed longer.



Must
Examples here refer to British English; there is some variation in American English.

Sự cần thiết , nghĩa vụ bổn phận.

Must đề cập đến nghĩa vụ và bổn phận của cá nhân phải thực hiện. Nếu nghĩa vụ mang tính khách quan như quy định tập thể , nhà trường , công ty , luật pháp nhà nước thì Must chắc chắn được ưu tiên hơn Have to.
I really must get some exercise.
People must try to be more tolerant of each other.
You musn't look - promise?
If you own a car, you have to pay an annual road tax.

Lời khuyên và lời mời mang mức độ mạnh , áp lực lớn.I think you really must make more of an effort.
You must go and see the film - it's brilliant.
You must come and see me next time you're in town.

Đề cập đến vấn đề nghĩ rằng rất chắc chắn.
This must be the place - there's a white car parked outside.
You must be mad.
What a suntan! You must have had great weather.

The negative is expresses by can't:
You're going to sell your guitar! You can't be serious!
She didn't wave - she can't have seen me.



Should
Đưa lời khuyên.

I think you should go for the Alfa rather than the Audi.
You shouldn't be drinking if you're on antibiotics.
You shouldn't have ordered that chocolate dessert - you're not going to finish it.

Nghĩa vụ : nhưng mang mức độ nhẹ hơn so với Must..
The university should provide more sports facilities.
The equipment should be inspected regularly.

Sự suy diễn,suy luận..
The letter should get to you tomorrow - I posted it first class.

Những sự việc đã ko xảy ra nhưng đáng có thể xảy ra.
I should have renewed my TV licence last month, but I forgot.
You shouldn't have spent so much time on that first question.

Ought to =should
Should thì phổ biến và dễ dùng hơn nếu bạn không chắc thì nên dùng should.

MUST và HAVE TO :

Khác biệt rõ ràng nhất giữa Must và Have to là ở dạng phủ định .
Chúng ta sử dụng must not mức độ mạnh, hoàn toàn ko hoàn thành thực hiện nghĩa vụ trách nhiệm .

We mustn't talk about it. It's confidential.
I mustn't eat chocolate. It's bad for me.
You mustn't phone me at work. We aren't allowed personal calls.
They mustn't see us talking or they'll suspect something.

Chúng ta sử dụng "don't have to" ('haven't got to' in British English) nói rõ rằng nó ko phải nghĩa vụ hoặc sự cần thiết .

We don't have to get there on time. The boss is away today.
I don't have to listen to this. I'm leaving.
You don't have to come if you don't want to.
He doesn't have to sign anything if he doesn't want to at this stage.
I haven't got to go. Only if I want to.

hokcoten
07-09-2007, 01:56 PM
Expressions which are synonymous with the modal auxiliaries

The modal verbs can be used only as auxiliaries; they cannot be used on their own. They are defective, since they have no infinitive, or present or past participle.

It should be noted that in addition to the modal auxiliaries will and can, there are two other English verbs, to will and to can, which are conjugated regularly. The verb to will has the meaning to direct one's willpower toward something, or to bequeath by means of a will. The verb to can has the meaning to put into a can.

Because the modal auxiliaries are defective, they cannot be combined with one another. Thus, the fact that the English future tenses are formed with the modal auxiliaries will and shall means that the other modal auxiliaries cannot be put into the future.

When it is desired to put the ideas expressed by the modal auxiliaries into the future, synonymous expressions must be used. The following are the synonymous expressions most often used:

Modal Auxiliary Synonymous Expression
can = be able to
may = be allowed to
must = have to

It should be noted that the expression be allowed to is synonymous with may only when may is used in the sense of permission being granted.

The following examples illustrate how synonymous expressions may be used when it is desired to put the modal auxiliaries can, may and must into the future.

Present Future
I can work. = I will be able to work.
You may work. = You will be allowed to work.
He must work. = He will have to work

Hope this can help :D

hokcoten
09-09-2007, 03:11 PM
1. Can/Could
- can/could do sth: c thể lm g ở hiện tại, tương lai
Eg: She can speak English fluently.
- can/could do sth: giả thiết hiện tại, tương lai.
Eg: Sam hasnt come yet. He can be sleeping.
- Can/could have done sth: c khả năng lm g trong qu khứ nhưng đ khng lm.
Eg: Last year I could have taken an English course abroad, but I didnt want to leave my country.
- Can/could have done sth: c lẽ đ lm g (dự đon trong qu khứ)Eg: yesterday I call at Jims house, but I didnt see his grandpas old clock on the wall. He could have sold it.

2. must/have to
- must do sth: phải lm g
Eg: He must do the washing-up as he has promised me to do it.
- have to do sth: phải lm g
Eg: We have to hurry so as to catch the last bus home.
- mustnt do sth: cấm lm g
Eg: You mustnt touch anything on my desk.
- not have to do sth: ko cần lm g
Eg: You dont have to close that window, just leave it open.
- must do sth: chắc hẳn (dự đon ở hiện tại, tương lai)
Eg: He can pick up what the teacher says in no time. He must be very clever.
- must have done sth: chắc hẳn đ lm g (dự đon trong qu khứ)
Eg: I havent seen John for such a long time. He must have changed a lot.

3. would/ should:
- should have done: nn lm g nhưng đ ko lm
Eg: He is angry with her. She should have told him about this earlier.
- would have done: c thể đ lm nhưng ko lm. thuờng dng trong cu đk
Eg: If I had known about your idea, I would have helped you to draw up a proper plan.

Exercise: Fill in the blank with must have been, cant(couldnt) have been, have to/had to (be) and didnt have to (be):

1. He knows a lot about flying plane. He .. a pilot when he was young.
2. Vera .. at the supermarket this morning. I didnt see her there.
3. John. at the bank until 10, so he arrived here five minutes ago.
4. When she. at the hospital? Early this morning.
5. We had enough foreign currency left at the end of the holiday, so I . buy any more.
6. Monica knew exactly what to do. I . tell her twice.
7. There.. an accident on South Street because the road is closed off.
8. I left a message on your answer phone last night. You. out.
9. You .. waiting long. After all, Im only five minutes late.
10. The fire alarm went and we out of the building in two minutes.

rockforlife609
09-09-2007, 04:01 PM
yeah ! thanks for sharing your post to us

Longan tree
22-09-2007, 08:49 AM
Exercise: Fill in the blank with must have been, can’t(couldn’t) have been, have to/had to (be) and didn’t have to (be):

1. He knows a lot about flying plane. He …must have been….. a pilot when he was young.
2. Vera …must have been….. at the supermarket this morning. I didn’t see her there.
3. John……had to be …. at the bank until 10, so he arrived here five minutes ago.
4. When did she……have to be …. at the hospital? Early this morning.
5. We had enough foreign currency left at the end of the holiday, so I …can’t have been……. buy any more.
6. Monica knew exactly what to do. I …didn’t have to ……. tell her twice.
7. There…must have been ….. an accident on South Street because the road is closed off.
8. I left a message on your answer phone last night. You…must have been……. out.
9. You …must have been\ couldn’t have been….. waiting long. After all, I’m only five minutes late.
10. The fire alarm went and we…have to be …… out of the building in two minutes.
__________________

Sai nhìu lém đây :(

sha_sha
22-09-2007, 09:23 PM
1. Can/Could
- can/could do sth: c thể lm g ở hiện tại, tương lai
Eg: She can speak English fluently.
- can/could do sth: giả thiết hiện tại, tương lai.
Eg: Sam hasnt come yet. He can be sleeping.
- Can/could have done sth: c khả năng lm g trong qu khứ nhưng đ khng lm.
Eg: Last year I could have taken an English course abroad, but I didnt want to leave my country.
- Can/could have done sth: c lẽ đ lm g (dự đon trong qu khứ)Eg: yesterday I call at Jims house, but I didnt see his grandpas old clock on the wall. He could have sold it.

2. must/have to
- must do sth: phải lm g
Eg: He must do the washing-up as he has promised me to do it.
- have to do sth: phải lm g
Eg: We have to hurry so as to catch the last bus home.
- mustnt do sth: cấm lm g
Eg: You mustnt touch anything on my desk.
- not have to do sth: ko cần lm g
Eg: You dont have to close that window, just leave it open.
- must do sth: chắc hẳn (dự đon ở hiện tại, tương lai)
Eg: He can pick up what the teacher says in no time. He must be very clever.
- must have done sth: chắc hẳn đ lm g (dự đon trong qu khứ)
Eg: I havent seen John for such a long time. He must have changed a lot.

3. would/ should:
- should have done: nn lm g nhưng đ ko lm
Eg: He is angry with her. She should have told him about this earlier.
- would have done: c thể đ lm nhưng ko lm. thuờng dng trong cu đk
Eg: If I had known about your idea, I would have helped you to draw up a proper plan.

Exercise: Fill in the blank with must have been, cant(couldnt) have been, have to/had to (be) and didnt have to (be):

1. He knows a lot about flying plane. He must have been.. a pilot when he was young.
2. Vera must have been.. at the supermarket this morning. I didnt see her there.
3. Johnhad to be. at the bank until 10, so he arrived here five minutes ago.
4. When does shehave to be. at the hospital? Early this morning.
5. We had enough foreign currency left at the end of the holiday, so I didn't have to. buy any more.
6. Monica knew exactly what to do. I had to. tell her twice.
7. Therecouldn't have been.. an accident on South Street because the road is closed off.
8. I left a message on your answer phone last night. Youmust have been. out.
9. You didn't haveto be.. waiting long. After all, Im only five minutes late.
10. The fire alarm went and we had to be out of the building in two minutes.
If i have mistake pls correct me

hokcoten
23-09-2007, 03:23 PM
Key n:

Exercise: Fill in the blank with must have been, cant(couldnt) have been, have to/had to (be) and didnt have to (be):

1. He knows a lot about flying plane. He must have been.. a pilot when he was young.
2. Vera couldn't have been.. at the supermarket this morning. I didnt see her there.
3. Johndidn't have to be . at the bank until 10, so he arrived here five minutes ago.
4. When does shehave to be . at the hospital? Early this morning.
5. We had enough foreign currency left at the end of the holiday, so I didn't have to. buy any more.
6. Monica knew exactly what to do. I had to . tell her twice.
7. Theremust have been .. an accident on South Street because the road is closed off.
8. I left a message on your answer phone last night. Youmust have been. out.
9. You didn't have to be.. waiting long. After all, Im only five minutes late.
10. The fire alarm went and wehad to be out of the building in two minutes.

c cần giải thik ko nhỉ?