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October_star
10-07-2010, 05:06 PM
Cho em hỏi ở đây có ai có ngữ pháp toàn bộ về cách sử dụng phó từ trong tiếng anh có thể post lên để tham khảo.:48_002:

Rabbit kute
10-07-2010, 08:00 PM
Phân loại phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) và cách sử dụng, vị trí của từng loại
1. Phó từ chỉ cách thức (adverbs of manner)
• Ví dụ: bravely, fast, happily, hard, quickly, well
• Vị trí:
– Thường đứng sau động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) hoặc sau tân ngữ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=t%C3%A2n+ng%E1%BB%AF) (nếu có)
She danced beautifully.
They speak English well.

– Khi verb + preposition + object, phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) cách thức có thể đứng trước giới từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a%2C+v%E1%BB%8B+tr %C3%AD+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB%A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ gi%E1%BB%9Bi+t%E1%BB%AB)hoặc sau tân ngữ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=t%C3%A2n+ng%E1%BB%AF):
He looked at me suspiciously = he looked suspiciously at me.

– Nếu tân ngữ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=t%C3%A2n+ng%E1%BB%AF) quá dài, chúng ta đặt phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) trước động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB):
She carefully picked up all the bits of broken glass.
He angrily denied that he had stolen the documents.
They secretly decided to leave the town.

– Đối với những phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) nói về cá tính, tính cách hoặc trí tuệ, như foolishly, generously, kindly, stupidly… khi đặt trước động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) ám chỉ rằng hành động đó là ngu ngốc, tốt bụng, hào phóng….
I foolishly forgot my passport –> it was foolish of me to forget
He kindly waited for me –> It was kind of him to wait

– "Somehow” có thể đặt ở vị trí đầu câu hay sau một động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) không có tân ngữ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=t%C3%A2n+ng%E1%BB%AF) hoặc sau tân ngữ:
Somehow they managed
They managed somehow
They raised the money somehow.


2. Phó từ chỉ thời gian (adverbs of time)
• Ví dụ: now, soon, still, then, today, yet, recently, afterwards…
• Vị trí:
– Thường đặt ở đầu câu hoặc cuối mệnh đề (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=II.2.+C%C3%A1c+lo%E1%BA%A1i+m%E1%BB%87nh+%C4% 91%E1%BB%81)
Eventually he came = he came eventually.
Then he went home = he went home then.

– "Before, early, immediately, late” đặt sau mệnh đề (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=II.2.+C%C3%A1c+lo%E1%BA%A1i+m%E1%BB%87nh+%C4% 91%E1%BB%81).
He came late
I’ll go immediately

Nếu “before và immediately được sử dụng như liên từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=I.7.+Li%C3%AAn+t%E1%BB%AB+v%C3%A0+c%C3%A1ch+s %E1%BB%AD+d%E1%BB%A5ng) th́ được đặt ở đầu mệnh đề (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=II.2.+C%C3%A1c+lo%E1%BA%A1i+m%E1%BB%87nh+%C4% 91%E1%BB%81).

Immediately the rain stops we’ll set out.

– "Yet” thường đặt sau động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) hoặc sau động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) + tân ngữ
He hasn’t finished (his breakfast) yet.

– "Still” được đặt sau động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) “be” nhưng trước các động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) khác.
She is still in bed.
He still doesn’t understand.


3. Phó từ chỉ địa điểm (adverbs of place)
• Ví dụ: away, everywhere, here, nowhere, somewhere, there…
• Vị trí:
– Nếu không có tân ngữ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=t%C3%A2n+ng%E1%BB%AF), những phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) này thường đặt sau động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB)
She went away
Bill is upstairs

– Nếu có tân ngữ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=t%C3%A2n+ng%E1%BB%AF), chúng đặt sau tân ngữ
She sent him away
I looked for it everywhere.

– “Here, there” + be/come/go + noun:
Here’s Tom
There’s Ann
Here comes the train
There goes our bus.

“Here”, “there” đặt ở vị trí này có ư nghĩa nhấn mạnh hơn so với chúng đặt ở sau động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB).

Nếu noun là đại từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BA%A1i+t%E1%BB%AB) nhân xưng, nó thường được đặt trước động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB)

There he is

Here I am


– Trong văn viết, những ngữ trạng từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=Ng%E1%BB%AF+tr%E1%BA%A1ng+t%E1%BB%AB) bắt đầu bằng giới từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a%2C+v%E1%BB%8B+tr %C3%AD+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB%A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ gi%E1%BB%9Bi+t%E1%BB%AB)(down, from, in, on, over, out of, up…) có thể đứng trước động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) chuyển động, động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) ám chỉ vị trí (crouch, hang, lie, sit, stand) và một số động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) khác.
In the doorway stood a man with a gun
On the perch beside him sat a blue parrot.


4. Phó từ tần suất (adverbs of frequency)
• Ví dụ: always, frequently, often, sometimes, occasionally, usually, continually, ever, never, rarely, seldome, hardly ever….
• Vị trí:
– Sau động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) “tobe” (ở các th́ đơn giản)
He is always in time for meals.

– Trước động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) thường:
They sometimes stay up all night.

– "Often” nếu đặt ở cuối th́ thường đi cùng “quite” hoặc “very”
He walked quite often.

– "Hardly, ever, never, rarely” có thể được đặt ở đầu câu nhưng phải dùng đảo ngữ của động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB)
Hardly/ scarcely ever did they manage to meet unobserved.


5. Phó từ chỉ mức độ (adverbs of degree)
• Ví dụ: fairly, hardly, rather, quite, too, very, absolutely, almost, really, extremely, only, rather, completely, just…
• Vị trí:
– Phó từ chỉ mức độ bổ nghĩa cho một tính từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+t%C3%ADnh+t%E1%BB%AB) hoặc một phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) khác. Nó được đặt trước tính từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+t%C3%ADnh+t%E1%BB%AB) hoặc phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB).
You are absolutely right.
I’m almost ready.

– Những phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) mức độ sau đây có thể bổ nghĩa cho động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB): almost, barely, enough, hardly, just, little, much, nearly, quite, rather, really…
He almost/nearly fell.
I’m just going.
Tom didn’t like it much but I really enjoyed it.

– Về mặt lí thuyết, “only” được đặt trước động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB), tính từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+t%C3%ADnh+t%E1%BB%AB) và phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB), trước hoặc theo sau danh từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=Ch%E1%BB%A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+danh+t%E1% BB%AB+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+danh+t%E1%BB% AB)hoặc đại từ.
He had only six apples.
He only lent the car.
I believe only half of what he said.

Nhưng trong văn nói, người Anh thường đặt nó trước động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB)
He only had six apples.
I only believe half of what he said.

– "Rather” có thể sử dụng trước “alike, like, similar, different…” và trước tính từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+t%C3%ADnh+t%E1%BB%AB) so sánh hơn.
Siamese cats are rather like dogs in some ways.
The weather was rather worse than I had expected.

“rather a” có thể đi với một số danh từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=Ch%E1%BB%A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+danh+t%E1% BB%AB+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+danh+t%E1%BB% AB)“disappointment, disadvantage, nuisance, pity, shame”
It’s rather a nuisance that we can’t park here.
It’s rather a shame that he has to work on Sundays.

– "Hardly, scarcely, barely” mang nghĩa phủ định. “hardly” thường được sử dụng với “any, ever, at all” hoặc động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) can.
I hardly ever go out.
It hardly rained at all last summer.
Her case is so heavy that she can hardly lift it.

Hardly cũng có thể sử dụng với các động từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2 n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+%C4%91%E1%BB%99ng+t%E1%BB%AB) khác.
I hardly know him

Scarcely có thể thay thế hardly trong các trường hợp trên.
Barely có nghĩa là “not more than/only just”
There were barely twenty people there. (only just twenty)


6. Phó từ nghi vấn (interrogative)
• Ví dụ: when, where, why, how …
• Vị trí: đứng ở đầu câu
When did you see her?
Why was he late?

7. Phó từ quan hệ (relative)
• Ví dụ: when, where, why…
• Vị trí: đứng sau danh từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=Ch%E1%BB%A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+danh+t%E1% BB%AB+v%C3%A0+ph%C3%A2n+lo%E1%BA%A1i+danh+t%E1%BB% AB)
I remember the day when they arrived.
The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean.
The reason why I’m phoning you is to invite you to a party.

Chú ư: trong một câu, có cả phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) cách thức, địa điểm, thời gian, th́ trật tự thường là phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) cách thức + phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) địa điểm + phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) thời gian.
Ví dụ: He spoke well at the debate this morning.
She prepared her lessons carefully at home yesterday.

October_star
12-07-2010, 04:31 PM
thế có bt ko???? có th́ post hộ nhé!!!!

Rabbit kute
12-07-2010, 08:24 PM
okie
Bài tập: Đặt những phó từ (http://hocmai.vn/mod/wiki/view.php?id=18771&page=%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh+ngh%C4%A9a+v%C3%A0+ch%E1%BB %A9c+n%C4%83ng+c%E1%BB%A7a+ph%C3%B3+t%E1%BB%AB) trong ngoặc vào đúng chỗ của nó trong câu.
1. He has read that book (already)
2. This book is interesting (extremely)
3. I haven’t been there (before)
4. He is on time (seldom)
5. The elevator operates (automatically)
6. He arrives (never, on time, at the meeting)
7. I saw Dan (at the lecture, last night)
8. He left the office (early, this afternoon)
9. They stayed (all day, quietly, there)
10. I shall meet you (outside your office, tomorrow, at 2 o’clock)
11. He was born (in 1396, at 10a.m, on July 14th)
12. She will return the book (next week, to, the library)
Đáp án chị sẽ post sau

tran_thehung
16-07-2010, 07:59 AM
1. He has read that book (already)
He has already read that book.
2. This book is interesting (extremely)
This book is extremely interesting.
3. I haven’t been there (before)
I haven't been there before.
4. He is on time (seldom)
He is seldom on time.
5. The elevator operates (automatically)
The elevator operates automatically.
The elavator automatically operates.
6. He arrives (never, on time, at the meeting)
He never arrives on time at the meeting.
7. I saw Dan (at the lecture, last night)
I saw Dan at the lecture last night.
Last night, I saw Dan at the lecture.
8. He left the office (early, this afternoon)
He left the office early this afternoon.
This afternoon, he left the office early.
9. They stayed (all day, quietly, there)
They stayed there all day quietly.
...
Anh bận rùi. C̣n mấy câu kia ai làm giúp anh hen.

Rabbit kute
16-07-2010, 03:11 PM
Đáp án nè bạn
1. He has already read that book
2. This book is extremely interesting
3. I haven’t been there before
4. He is seldom on time
5. The elevator operates automatically
6. He never arrives at the meeting on time
7. I saw Dan at the lecture last night
8. He left the office early this afternoon
9. They stayed there quietly all day
10. I shall meet you outside your office at 2 o’clock tomorrow
11. He was born at 10 a.m on July 14th in 1396
12. She will return the book to the library next week

gorilla
06-08-2010, 10:33 AM
1. He has already read that book
2. This book is extremely interesting
3. I haven’t been there before
4. He is seldom on time
5. The elevator operates automatically
6. He never arrives at the meeting on time
7. I saw Dan at the lecture last night
8. He left the office early this afternoon
9. They stayed quietly there all day
10. I shall meet you outside your office at 2 o’clock tomorrow
11. He was born at 10a.m on July 14th in 1396
12. She will return the book to the library next week