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mr.hand
20-09-2009, 09:07 PM
PRESENT PERFECT


FORM of Present Perfect

The Present Perfect has two parts: The verb to have and the Past Participle (PP) of the main verb (have/has + PP). See examples below.
[/URL]http://learnenglish.vn/images/stories/grammar/daucong.gif (http://learnenglish.vn/images/stories/grammar/daucong.gif)S + have/has + PP
I have learnt English.
He has swum well.
They have watched TV.
http://learnenglish.vn/images/stories/grammar/dautru.gif (http://learnenglish.vn/images/stories/grammar/dautru.gif)S + have/has not+ PP
I haven't learnt English.
He hasn't swum well.
They have not watched TV.
[URL="http://learnenglish.vn/images/stories/grammar/dauhoi.gif"]http://learnenglish.vn/images/stories/grammar/dauhoi.gif (http://learnenglish.vn/images/stories/grammar/dauhoi.gif)Have/Has + S + PP?
Have you learnt English?
Has he swum well?
Have they watched TV?

The Present Perfect refers to an action happened in the past but it is still related to the present.
The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we are often more interested in the result than in the action itself.

USEs of Present Perfect

1. to describe an action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present



I have lived in New York for nine years.
We have been here since Friday.
He has played football since he was a child.

2. to describe an action performed during a period that has not yet finished:



James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn't stopped.

3. to express a repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now:



I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

4. to express an action that was completed in the very recent past, expressed by 'just' and 'recently'.:



He has just broken his leg
Recently, I haven't seen any changes in petrol price.
Have you just had your hair cut?

5. An action when the time is not important, it is expressed as an experience:



I have been to France.
(This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.)
I have been to France three times.
(You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.)
I have never been to France.
(This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.)
Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.


Forms of Negatives and Questions

Negative sentences and questions are formed with the auxiliary verb 'have'.
The 3rd person singular of 'have' is 'has. This means that in negative sentences and questions, we have to use 'has'.


He has never been to America.
Has Thomas finished his writing task yet?


Signal Words of Present Perfect:

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now,for, since

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